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Vallalbari (Dhaka). Vallalbari at Vikrampur now in the Munshiganj District of Dhaka is known to have been the residence of the Sen rulers in the early period of their rule. It is situated to the south of Rampal Dighi, noteworthy to preserve the name of Vallalsena. To this place Raja Laksmansena look refuge after the capture of his chief cities– Gaur and Nudia by the Muslims. From Cunningham’s report it is known that the place was well fortified and the area ‘consists of a large earthen fort about 750 ft (228.6 m) square and a broad ditch of about 200 ft (60.96 m) all round’. About a kilometre to the south of Vallalbari, there was a big water tank called Rampal Dighi ‘1800 ft (548.64 m) in length by 800 ft (243.84 m) in breadth. The water is deep and clear and the banks are covered with large old trees’. The Royal elephants are said to have been kept at the northern end. ‘The land at the south end is still held by descendants of the old Rajas’. Cunningham observed that the only remains of this old Sena capital were the Vallalbari with it’s Agnikunda, and the great lake called Rampla Dighi. At a short distance to the north he noticed the masjid and tomb of Baba Adam, one of the first Muhammadan invaders of the district’.

From the recent survey a large number of forts are also known from the northern districts. They are Bodeshwari fort, Banglagarh, Nekmard, Gargram, Dharmagarh, Ranishankail-Malduar, Kichak Rajargarh, Belaichandi Birat Rajaj Durga, Fulbari Fort, Chandipurgarh and Pinglai in Dinajpur District; Biratnagar in Rangpur District; Nimgram in Bogra District and Nauda Burj in Nawabganj District (Rajshahi). Unfortunately, not much is known about them, and it is very likely that their description will not differ much from those narrated above.

3.1.2 Other Structures

The Salban Vihara at Mainamati contains within it’s courtyard on the south-east corner a large oblong pillared hall with two attached chambers. The discovery of a large number of broken pots and utensils found in it’s vicinity in association with ashes and charcoal pieces suggest that the building was probably the community-dining hall of the monastery.

Some secular structures have also been discovered in and around the monastery at Paharpur. Of these the two important ones are the long pillared dining hall within the courtyard of the monastery and the paved bathing ghat to it’s southeast corner.

The discovery of the basements of some interesting damp-proof granaries at Bangarh suggests that similar structures carried on pillars must also have been a building form connected with the city or monastic establishments in ancient Bengal.

The Kaivarta Pillar at Dibar Dighi in the Patnitala Upazila of Naogaon District is an exceptional monument. Built in the style of Asokan Pillar, it’s purpose, however, seems to be different. Asokan Pillars with cut inscriptions were built to inform the people of his edicts, but the present plain but tall pillar, sculptured in the fashion of a nine faceted column, can only be described as a victory tower, so long rarely known but widespread in the Muslim medieval period in India and outside. The suggestion is

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