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tradition creating thereby a further new form termed as ‘Colonial’. In the Colonial period the British were careful enough not to impose any external influence on the religious buildings leaving them to their local patrons. In the event very little western mark is noticeable in the temples or mosques which remained almost untouched except some acceptability in the design and decoration of the arches which are now more rounded than conical and elaborated with a larger number of foiles. In the temples verticality is now more pronounced in the shape of western spires, but made with a growing number of successive chalas and caps topped by an elongated kalasa finial.

It is interesting that the Colonial architecture got a lasting acceptability in Bengal. Residential and office buildings were made at random in the style, and many such buildings created by locals in imitation of the initial ones still servive today to speak of their old glory and ingenuity. Massive pillars of the classical order and pediments are still in vogue and are used as symbols of authority and majesty. Classicism remains as ever a dominant factor to those who believe in history and continuity.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY


Ahmed, Nazimuddin. Buildings of the British Raj in Bangladesh. Dhaka, University Press Ltd., 1986.

Ahmed, Sharif uddin. Building of a Capital City-Dhaka, 1905-1911. Bangladesh Historical Studies, 1995.

Banglapedia, Relevant Vols. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003.

Bari, M.A. Mughal Mosque Types in Bangladesh: Origins and Development. An unpublished Ph.D. Thesis. Rajshahi University, 1989.

Campos, J.J. A History of the Portuguese in Bengal. London and Calcutta: Butterwarth & Co., 1919.

Chaudhuri, Sukanta (ed.). Calcutta the Living City, Vol. I: The Past. New Delhi: OUP, 1990.

Colvin, H.M. A Catagone of Architectural Drawings of the 18th and 19th Centuries of the Library of Worcester College. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1964.

Dani, A.H. Muslim Architecture in Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 1961. Daniell, Thomas and William. Oriental Scenery. London 1797-8.

D’Oyly, Sir Charles. Views of Calcutta and it’s Environs. London, 1848.

Fleming, William. Arts and Ideas. New York, Toronto, London: Halt, Rinehart and Winston, 1963.

Fletcher, Sir Banister. A History of Architecture on Comparative Method (Revised edition). University of London: Athlone Press, 1967.

Fraser, James Baillie. Views of Calcutta and it’s Environs (shortened). London, 1824-6.


Gomes, Catherine D. Characteristics and Regional Influences on the Genesis of Church Architecture in Bangladesh. An unpublished M-Arch Dissertation at the Department of Architecture, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2003.

Hedges, William. The Diary of William Hedges, Esq. London: Hakluyt Society, 1887. Husain, A.B.M. (ed.). Sonargaon-Panam (A Survey of Historical Monuments and

Sites in Bangladesh, Vol. 3). Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1997.

Islam, Sirajul. (ed.). History of Bangladesh (1704-1971). 3 Vols., Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1992.

Jerome, D’Costa. History of Catholic Churches in Bangladesh. Published by Fr A Jyoli Gomes, 1988.

Khan Faraque Ahmad Ullah Khan. Study of Colonial Architecture in Bangladesh.

Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of Dhaka, 1999.

King, Anthony D. The Bangalow, the Production of a Global Culture. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, 1984.

Losty, J.P. Calcutta, City of Palaces (A Survey of the City in the Days of the East India Company, 1690-1858). London: The British Library, 1990.

Majumdar, P.C. The Musnad of Murshidabad. Murshidabad: Saroda Roy, 1905 Mccutchion, David. Late Mediaeval Temples of Bengal. Calcutta: Asiatic Society,

1972.

Michell, G. (ed.), The Islamic Heritage of Bengal. Paris UNESCO, 1984

Mohsin, K.M. (Chairman, Board of Editors). Hundred Years of Bangabhavan. Dhaka, Government House, 2006.

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Calcutta: Government of West Bengal, 1991.

Nilsson, Sten. European Architecture in India 1750-1850. London: Faber & Faber, 1968.

Philiphs, C.H. (ed.). Handbook of Oriental History. London: SOAS, 1951.

Qanungo, Sunity Bhusan. A History of Chittagong, Vol. I. Published by Dipankor Qanungo, 1988.

Roy, Asim. The Islamic Syncretistic Tradition in Bengal. Princeton University, 1983. Saif Ul Haque, Raziul Ahsan and Kazi Khaled Ashraf (ed.). Pundranagar to Sherbanglanagar: Architecture in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Chetana Sthapatra

Unnoyan Society, 1977.



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Fort William by Jan van Ryne (1754)


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Town Hall by James Baillie Fraser (1819)



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(left) Shahid Minar

(1828)

[from Sukanta Choudhuri Ed. Calcutta]


(right) Calcutta Medical

College (1835) [from Sukanta Choudhuri Ed. Calcutta]


(bottom) Marble Palace

(1835)

[from Sukanta Choudhuri Ed. Calcutta]


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(left) Calcutta: Victoria Memorial


(bottom) Dhaka: Government House


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The southern gateway of the Government House


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Dhaka: Curzon Hall


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(left) Secretariat Building (now Dhaka Medical College and Hospital)


(bottom) Dhaka: Salimullah Muslim Hall



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(left) Chumari House


(bottom) Sardah Bara Kuthi (Neel Kuthi), 1781



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(left) Sardah Chhoto Kuthi (1781)


(bottom) Matihar Kuthi: Rajshahi University (late 18th century)



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(top) ground plan, Neel Kuthi, Sonargaon


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(bottom) ground plan, Tahirpur Palace, Rajshahi, from west (c.

1897)



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(left) Puthia, Rajshahi: the residence of Maharani Hemantakumari


(bottom) Puthia, Rajshahi: Khajanchi Khana (Charani Rajbari)



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Balihar Rajbari, Naogaon: Raj Rajeswari

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Mandir


Balihar Rajbari, Naogaon: Kali Mandir


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(left) Puthia Rajbari: Panch Ani Palace, ground plan


(bottom) Puthia Rajbari Panch Ani Palace, from north (1895)


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(top) Natore Rajbari: ground plan, (left) Barataraf, Guard House

and Store room


(bottom) Natore Rajbari: Barataraf, from south (early 20th century)


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(left) Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, ground plan


(bottom) Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, early

20th century



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(right) Natore Rajbari: Barataraf, clerestory window of reception hall


(bottom) Natore Rajbari: Barataraf, coloured frieze

of a room



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(left) Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, decorative arch of east verandah


(bottom) Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, decorative arch of the northern east entrance


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Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, crest of the

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porch


Natore Rajbari: Chhotataraf, a decorative

arch of the porch


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Natore Rajbari: Barataraf, dilapidated part of Rani Mahal


Natore Rajbari: Barataraf, entrance of guest-house


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(right) Dighapatia Rajbari, Natore: Khajanchi Khana (treasury building), from north-east


(bottom) Dighapatia Rajbari, Natore: Kumar Palace



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(left) Patishar, Naogaon: Kacharibari of Jorashako Thakurbari


(bottom) Mahadevpur Rajbari, Naogaon: Chandimandap, from south-east


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(right) Kashimpur Rajbari, Naogaon: a flat

roofed mandir


(bottom) Natore Rajbari: Honeyqueen Bhavan, from south-west


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(left) Dubalbati, Naogaon: Garden House


(right) Tahirpur Rajbari, Rajshahi: Shiva Temple


(bottom) Talanda Rajbari, Rajshahi: Aat­ chala Shiva Mandir


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Dighapatia Palace, Natore, main gateway

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(from east)


(bottom) ground plan Dighapatia Palace (Uttara Gana Bhavan), late 19th or early 20th

century


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(left) Kumar Palace, Dighapatia Rajbari, ground plan


(bottom) Naogaon: Dubalhati Rajbari, from north (end of 19th century)



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(left) Dubalhati Rajbari,

ground plan


(right) Mahadevpur Palace, ground plan


(bottom) Mahadevpur Rajbari, Naogaon, from east (end of 19th century)



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(top) ground plan

Balihar Rajbari, Naogaon from east (end of 19th century)

(bttom) Tajhat Palace, Rangpur (late 19th century)


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Panam: Building No 3, 5, 26 (Central Hall)


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Panam: Building No 16 Plan Building No 16


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(left) Plan, Building 36, 40 (Central Courtyard type)


(right) Plan, Ananda Mohan Poddars House


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Krori Bari


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(rihgt) Ahsan Manzil,

Dhaka


(bottom) Coochbihar

Palace Photo: Ayesha Begum



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(rihgt) Gazipur: Bhawal Rajbari (c. 1838)


(bottom) Central Railway Building, Chittagong



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(right) Wooden

Bungalow


(bottom) General Hospital on the Rangmahal Hill (originally the site of the

Arakani Fort)



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Old Cricuit House (a British manor house in Bangladesh), presently Zia Smrity Jadughar


(bottom) Battali Railway Station, Chittagong



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Court Building on the Parir Pahar, Chittagong


Murshidabad: Mosque of

Mian Halal Photo: Catherine B Asher


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(top) plan, Raipura Mosque, Durgapur, Rajshahi,

Photo: ABM Husain (1963)


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(bottom) plan, Kismatmaria Mosque, Durgapur Rajshahi, Photo: ABM Husain (1963)



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(top) Murshidabad:

Imambara


(rihgt) Puthia: Ek- Bangla Mandir


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(left) Pabna: Jor Bangla Mandir 1607, (top) plan


(bottom) Puthia: Composite Mandir



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Puthia: Pancharatna

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Shiva Mandir


(left) Kantanagar: Nava-ratna Mandir (an

old photograph)


(right) Pabna: Hatikumrul, Navaratna Mandir (1704-28),

ground plan



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Puthia: Dolmancha


(left) Chandra (Jessore)

Shiva Mandir


(right) Baranagar (Murshidabad) octagonal Shiva Mandir



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Kotalpur, Bankura: Flat Temple of Haldar family



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Tarash Pabna: Jagannath Mandir (ground plan) Sonargaon: Single Shikhara Brick Temple


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(left) Holy Rosary Church of Tejgaon


(bottom) Church of St. Nicholas Tolentino, Nagori



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Plan of St. Nicholas Tolentino, Nagori


Holy Rosary Church, Hasnabad, Dhaka


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(left) Plan of Church of Our Lady of the Rosary Chittagong


(bottom) Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, Chittagong


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(left) Church of Our Lady of the Rosary, interior view (right) Holy Cross Church, Laxmibazar, Dhaka


Christ Church, Chittagong



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Plan of Holy Cross Church Laxmibazar,

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Dhaka


(left) Plan of St. Peter’s Church, Barisal


(right) Plan of Christ Church, Chittagong



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Plan of St. Xavier's Church, Pahartali,

Chittagong



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