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4


MONUMENTS KNOWN THROUGH LITERARY AND INSCRIPTIONAL REFERENCES


Monuments known through literary and inscriptional references in Mughal time are not as enormous as those found in the Sultanate Period. The reason was probably the rulers (Subadars and Nawabs) less pronounced position than that of the Sultans. The sparse use of stone and the character of the style of writing (Nasta’liq) under the Mughals also contributed to their infrequent use. Nasta’liq was perhaps suitable in paper than in hard material like stone and it is sufficiently evident from the surviving examples of manuscripts and inscriptions of not only Bengal but also other parts of India.

In the following pages an attempt has been undertaken to enlist those monuments so far known through literary and inscriptional sources.

Inscriptions of Bengal under the Mughal Emperors

1. Section A: Religious Building (Imaratul Mubaraka)

1.1 Mosques

1. Nurud-Din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi, 1014-1037 AH (1605-27 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.1

Persian inscription in the reign of Nurud-Din Muhammad Jahangir Padshah Ghazi. From Karatia, Tangail.

No other details are available. Date: 1019 AH (1610-11 CE).

The epigraph records the completion of Sayeed Khan Pani’s mosque. Reference: Bangladesh District Gazetteer, Tangail with pl.; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 525. Inscription no. 1.1.2

Arabic-Persian inscription of the reign of Emperor Jahangir. From Kesiari, Medinipur, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.407m 0.305m. Date: 9th Ramadan, 1031 AH (8th July, 1622 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Haji Jamala Isfahani.

Reference: W.H. Siddiqi, EIAP, 1961, pp. 69-70, pl. XXII(b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 429-30, pl. 87(a).


2. Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan, 1038-1069 AH (1628-58 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.3

Persian inscription (the first line is a quotation from the Holy Quran) in the reign of emperor Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan. From Sherpur, Birbhum, W, Bengal.

No other detail is available, Date: 1038 AH (1628-29 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Sayyid Ali.

Reference: JASB, vol. LV, 1885, pp. 104-05; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 271; A. Karim,

CAPIB, p. 433.

Inscription no. 1.1.4

Arabic mixed with Persian inscription in the reign of Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan. From Sherpur Murcha, Bogra.

Basalt stone. Size: 0.67m 0.431m. No other detail is available. Date: 1042 AH (1632-33 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Sadr Jahan, son of Mian Jiu, son of Yazid, son of Daud.

Reference: P. Horn, EI, vol. II, pp. 290-91; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 276-77; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 433-35.

Inscription no. 1.1.5

Arabic inscription in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Nawadah, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Black basalt slab. No other detail is available. Date: 1052 AH (1642-43 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by one Lodi Khan, son of Shaikh Husain Lodi.

Reference: G.D. Sarkar, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, p. 150; S. Ahmad, IB,

pp. 277-78; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 441-42.

Inscription no. 1.1.6

Arabic– Persian (last two lines are in Persian) inscription in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Hijli, Medinipur, West Bengal.

No other detail relating to the material on which the text was carved, style of writing and its character are available. Date: 1058 AH (1648-49 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Taj Khan.

Reference: Mahendra Karan, Hijlir Masnd-i-‘Ala, Appendix-2, p. 222; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 444-45.

Inscription no. 1.1.7

Arabic– Persian inscription (first four lines in Arabic and last two lines in Persian) of the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Churihatta Mosque, Dhaka City.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.915m 0.431m. Date: 1060 AH (1650 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 30-31; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 164; A. Karim,

JASP, vol. XII, no. 2, 1967, pp. 296-99; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 445-47, pl. 72(a).


Inscription no. 1.1.8

Arabic inscription (mixed with a few Persian words) in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Egarasindur, Kishoreganj.

Naskh character. The inscription worked on plaster, Covered area– 0.46m 0.27m. Date: Rabi I, 1062 AH (February-March, 1652 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Sa‘adi, son of Shaikh Siru. Reference: Stapleton, JASB, vol. V, new series, 1909, pp. 373-74; A.H. Dani, Varendra Research Soiciety’s Monograph, no. 8, p. 34-35; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 278­ 79; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 447-48.

Inscription no. 1.1.9

Arabic inscription in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Mangalkot, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Naskh character. No other detail is available. Date: 1065 AH (1654-55 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: R.D.Banerji, SPP, vol. XX, no. 3, 1320; B.S., pp. 177-78; S. Ahmad,

IB, pp. 279-80; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 448-49.

Inscription no. 1.1.10

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Narayangarh, Medinipur, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Grey stone. Size: 0.420m 0.203m. Date: 1065 AH (1654-55 CE). It records the construction of a mosque in 1065 AH during the viceroyalty of Shah Shuja.

Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 512, pl. 19; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 449-51, pl. 72(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.11

Arabic– Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Hajo, Gauhati, Assam.

Basalt stone. Size: 1.48m 0.508m. No other detail is available. Date: 1067 AH (1657 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Lutfullah Shirazi. Reference: Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1953-54, pp. 46-49, pl. XIV (a); S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 280-84, fig. 54; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 452-55, pl. 74(a).

3. Emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib, 1068-1119 AH (1658-1707 CE).

Inscription no. 1.1.12

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib. From Saogaon, Birbhum, West Bengal.

No other information is available. Date: 1064 AH (1653-54 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Sayyid Pahad, son of Sayyid Hasan. Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 517; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 458.


Inscription no. 1.1.13

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Makhdum Sahib’s Mosque, Medinipur, West Bengal.

No other detail is available. Date: 1072 AH (1660-61 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 515; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 459-60.

Inscription no. 1.1.14

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Babubazar Mosque, Dhaka City.

The inscription has been damaged by fire, and some of the letters, including the date and year have disappeared (most probable the date was around 1666 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 22-24; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 189; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 463-64.

Inscription no. 1.1.15

Two Persian inscriptions in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From the Jami Mosque, Chittagong City.

Nast’aliq character. Date: Both the inscriptions contain the same date i.e. 1078 AH (1667-68 CE).

The epigraphs record the construction of a jami mosque by the order of Nawab Amir-al-Umara (Shayesta Khan).

Reference: S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 286-88, fig. 55; A. Karim, Itihas Samiti Patrika, vol. II, 1973, p.104; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp.464-66.

Inscription no. 1.1.16

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Narayangarh, Medinipur, West Bengal.

Black basalt. Size: 0.304m 0.25m. No other information is available. Date: 1079 AH (1668-69 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque (but it has been disappeared, long before). Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, N.S. 1924, p. 513; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 466-67. Inscription no. 1.1.17

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Chauk Masjid, Dhaka City.

Date: 1086 AH (1675-76 CE). No other information is available. It records the construction of a mosque by Shayesta Khan.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, p. 18; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 190; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 468-69.

Inscription no. 1.1.18

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From the Mosque of Khwajah Shahbaz, Dhaka.


Date: 1089 AH (1678-79 CE). No other details are available. It records the construction of a mosque by Khwajah Shahbaz.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, p. 29; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 203; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 469-70.

Inscription no. 1.1.19

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Karwan Bazar mosque, Dhaka City.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 0.686m 0.482m. Date: 1088 AH (1677­ 78 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khwajah Anbar.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 41-42; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 214; A. Karim, JASP, vol. XII, no. 2, 1967, pp. 300-03, pl. 4; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 470-72, pl. 75(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.20

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Hamzah Khan’s mosque, Chittagong City.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 0.343m 0.304m. Date: 1093 AH (1682­ 83 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Sayyid Hamzah.

Reference: Hamid Allah Khan, Ahadith al-Khawanin, p. 133; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 290-91; A. Karim, Itihas Samity Patrika, vol. II, 1973, pp. 107-09; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 474-76.

Inscription no. 1.1.21

Arabic-Persian inscription in the reign of Emperor Aurangzib. From Shahpur, Malda, West Bengal.

Arabic portion is in Naskh and the Persian portion is in Nast’aliq style. Black basalt. Size: 0.508m 0.304m. Date: 1102 AH (1690-91 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by the order of Fath Lal and Daulat Khan. Reference: M. Ishaq, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 39-40, pl. X(c); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 479-80, pl. 76(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.22

Arabic inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Kesiari, Medinipur, West Bengal.

Naskh character. No other detail is available. Date: 1102 CE (1690-91 CE) the date is given in chronogram and also in figure).

It records the construction of a mosque by Muhammad Tahir al-Alawi. Reference: W. H. Siddiqi, EIAP, 1961, pp. 72-73, pl. XIII(b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 480-82, pl. 88(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.23

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Pahartali, Chittagong City.

The style of writing is not available. Black basalt. Size: 0.838m 0.431m. inscribed surface is 0.79m 0.40m Date: 1104 AH (1692-93 CE).


The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Shahbaz.

Reference: Hamid Allah Khan, Ahadith al-Khawanin, p. 135; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 482.

Inscription no. 1.1.24

Two Persian mixed with Arabic inscriptions in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Inchlabazar, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 0.635m 0.255m. Date: One slab contains the date 1115 A. (1703-04 CE) and the other contains the date 1116 AH ((1705­ 05 CE). (Most probable the first inscription records the commencement and the second the completion of the construction of the mosque).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Sayyid Tahir.

Reference: S.Ahmad, EIM, 1935-36, pp. 58-59, pl. XXXVIII(b) & (c); S. Ahmad,

IB, pp. 292-94, fig. 56; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 483-85.

Inscription no. 1.1.25

Two Persian inscriptions in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Khan Muhammad Mirdha’s mosque, Dhaka City.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: The inscription that over the central Mihrab measures 0.737m 0.18m, and that over the eastern façade is divided into two parts– the first part measuring 0.56m 0.32m and the second part 0.508m 0.32m. Date: Both the inscriptions bear the same date i.e. 1116 A. (1704-05 CE). The second epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khan Muhammad Mirdha.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 25-26; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 228; A. Karim,

JASP, vol. XI, no. 2, 1967, p. 147, pl. II; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 485-88.

4. Shah ‘Alam Bahadur Shah, 1119-24 AH (1707-12 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.26

Arabic– Persian– Arabic (first line in Arabic, it follows four lines Persian verses and the last again in Arabic) inscription in the reign of Shah ‘Alam Bahadur Shah. From Nutan Paltan Mosque, Dhaka City.

No other details relating to the material on which the text was carved, style of writing and its character are available. Date: 1120 AH (1708-09 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: Nadvi, Hindustan Ki Qadim Islamic Darasgahen, pp. 57-88; M.A. Qadir, JSBD, vol. XXIV-XXVI, 1979-81, pp. 41-42, pl. XXVI; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 489-90.

5. Emperor Farrukh S’iyar, 1125-31 AH (1713-19 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.27

Persian inscription (first two lines Arabic) in the reign of emperor Farrukh S’iyar. From Mahastangarh, Bogra.


No other details, relating to the material (most likely stone) on which the text was carved, style of writing and its character are available. Date: 1130 AH (1718 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Khodadil.

Reference: P.C. Sen, Mahastan and its Environs (Varendra Research Society’s Monograph no.2), p. 31, Appendix III; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 525-26.

6. Emperor Muhammad Shah, 1131-61 AH (1719-48 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.28

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Qadam Mubarak Mosque, Chittagong City.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 1.143m 0.39m. Date: 1136 AH (1723-24 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Yasin Muhammad.

Reference: Hamid Allah Khan, ‘Ahadith al-Khawanin, p. 87; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 297-98; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 491-92.

Inscription no. 1.1.29

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Naginabagh, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Three Black basalt slabs. Size: Central slab measures 0.89m 0.19m. the two side slabs, each measures 0.45m 0.20m. Date: 1136 AH (1723-24 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by a lady called Begum.

Reference: Beveridge, Calcutta Review, vol. XCIV, January, 1892, p. 340; Bengal District Gazetteer, Murshidabad, p. 161; P.C. Majumdar, The Musnud of Murshidabad, p. 214; A. Mitra, District Hand-Book, Murshidabad, p. 185; M. Khatun, EIAP, 1959-60, pp. 23-24, pl. VII; C. Dutt, IMC, pp. 41-42; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 292-93, pl. 88(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.30

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From the Katra mosque, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

The Language is Persian. No other details are available. Date: 1138 AH (1725-26 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Murshid Quli J’afar Khan. Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 517; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 494.

Inscription no. 1.1.31

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Chhota Pandua, Hugli, West Bengal.

Black basalt. No other detail is available. Date: 1140 AH (1727-28 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Fath Khan son of Shuja Afghan Sur. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1970, p. 301; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 298-99.

Inscription no. 1.1.32

A four lines Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Sutalari, Barisal, Now preservel in the National Museum, Dhaka.


Stone slab. Size: 0.825m 0.420m. Date: 1151 AH (1738-39 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ghulam Muhammad (The mosque was washed away by the erosion of the river).

Reference: Enamul Haque, Islamic Art Heritage of Bangladesh, fig. 77; A. Karim,

CAPIB, p. 499, pl. 78(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.33

Arabic– Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Bajra Mosque, Noakhali.

First three lines are in Arabic and in Naskh style and the last three lines are in Persian verse and the style of writing is Nast’aliq. Date: 1154 AH (1741-42 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: M.A. Qadir, JASP, vol. XII, no. 3, 1967, p. 361, with a pl.; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 500-01, pl. 79(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.34

Arabic– Persian (first part in Arabic and the second part in Persian verses) inscription in the reign of emperor Muhammad Shah. From Baliaghata, Jangipur, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

No other information is available. Date: 1155 AH (1742-43 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Sayyid Qasim.

Reference: G.D. Sarkar, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, pp. 150-51; A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 50; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 301-02; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 501-02.

7. Emperor ‘Alamgir II, 1167-73 AH (1754-59 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.35

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor ‘Alamgir II (the epigraph did not mention the name of the reigning emperor). From Hazrat Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

Black basalt. No other information is available. Date: 1170 AH (1756 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Chand Khan.

Reference: H. Beveridge, JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 204-05; S.Ahmad, IB, p. 305; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 503-04.

Inscription no. 1.1.36

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor ‘Alamgir II. From Aukura Mosque, Dinajpur.

No other information is available. Date: 1172 AH (1758-59 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 526.

8. Emperor Shah ‘Alam II, 1173-1221 AH (1759-1806 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.37


Persian inscription (it is in Persian verse) in the reign of emperor Shah ‘Alam II (the inscription did not mention the name of the reigning emperor). From Mahinagar Mosque, Murshidiabad, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 0.457 m 0.330 m. Date: 1173 AH (1759­

60 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Wasil Muhammad.

Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 507; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 505.

Inscription no. 1.1.38

Arabic– Persian inscription (first two lines are in Arabic and the rest in Persian) in the reign of Shah Bidar Bakht Badshah Ghazi (a pretender to the Mughal throne). From Gadagram, Nilphamari.

Basalt stone slab. Size: 0.304 m 0.203 m. No other information is available. Date: 1203 AH (1788-89 CE)

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Muhammad Zarif. Reference: M. Ali, Eksho Teish Hijrir Ekti Shilalipi, A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, ASCB, 1998, pp. 377-78; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 510-12, pl. 80(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.39

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Shah ‘Alam II. From Phundan Mosque, Englishbazar, Malda, West Bengal.

No other details are available. Date: 1208 AH (1794 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by one Musammat Phundan.

Reference: A. A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 160; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 512-13. Inscription no. 1.1.40

Persian inscription (except Bismillah) in the reign of emperor Shah ‘Alam II.

From Berhampur, Murshidiabad, West Bengal.

Nast’aliq character. Coarse sandstone slab. Size: 0.318 m 0.241 m. Date: 1212 AH (1797 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by one Faqir Talib. Reference: R.P. Chanda, ARASI, 1928-29, p. 133; S.Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, p. 33, pl. XIII(c); S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 306-07; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 46; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 514.

9. Emperor Akbar II, 1221-1253 AH (1806-1837 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.41

Persian inscription during the Na’ib-Nizamat of Nawab Nasirul-Mulk Nusrat Jang. From the Shrine of Shah ‘Ali Bghdadi, Mirpur, Dhaka City.

No other information is available. Date: 1221 AH (1806-07 CE).

The epigraph records the repairs made to the mosque it also gives the history of the mosque and the date of death of Shah ‘Ali Bghdadi.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 38-39; S.M. Taifoor, pp. 79-80; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 516-17.


Inscription no. 1.1.42

Two Persian inscriptions from the Matubi Mosque, Noakhali.

The first inscription is in Persian language, except the Bismi’llah, the Kalima and the Dar’ud which are all in Arabic. It is carved on Black basalt stone.

It records the construction of a mosque by Muhammad Riza in 1221 BE (1230­ 31 AH = 1814-15 CE).

The second inscription records the repairing of the mosque by Maulavi Ahmad Allah in 1308 BE (1319-20 AH = 1901-02 CE)

Reference: M.A. Qadir, JASP, vol. XII, no. 3, 1967, p. 369; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 517-19.

10. Emperor Bahadur Shah II, 1253-1275 AH (1837-1858 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.43

Persian inscription. From Kuttitola Mosque, Englishbazar, Malda, West Bengal. No other details are available. Date: 1257 AH (1841-42 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Sha’ura Bewa.

Reference: A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p. 159; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 519. Inscription no. 1.1.44

Persian inscription (a few words in Arabic). From the Shahi Jami Masjid,

Chittagong City.

Nast’aliq character. Date: 1272 AH (1855 CE).

It records the history of the construction of the mosque and its subsequent repairs. Reference: Hamid Allah Khan, ‘Ahadith al-Khawanin, p. 239; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 308-09; A. Karim, Itihas Samity Patrika, vol. II, 1973, pp. 104-07, with a plate.

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 519-22, pl. 81(b). Inscription no. 1.1.45

Persian inscription. From the Shaikh Khair Allah’s mosque, Englishbazar, Malda,

West Bengal.

No other details are available. Date: 1300 AH (1882-83 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Shaikh Khair Allah. Reference: A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p. 160; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 522.

1.2 Madrasa

No record is available.

1.3 Khanqah/Musafirkhana/Chilla Khana

1. Emperor Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan, 1038-1069 AH (1628-1658 CE)

Inscription no.1.3.1

Two Persian inscriptions in the reign of emperor Shah Jahan. From Bara Katra, Old Dhaka.

Nast’aliq character. No other details are available. Date: One epigraph shows the date 1053 AH (1643-44 CE) while the other shows 1055 AH (1645-46 CE).


Both the epigraphs record the construction of the Bara Katra building under the supervision of Mir Abul Qasim, the then Prince Shah Shuja’s deputy at Dhaka. Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 12-15; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 160; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 442-44, pl. 71(b).

2. Emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib, 1068-1119 AH (1658-1707 CE)

Inscription no.1.3.2

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib. From Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

No other details are available. Date: 1075 AH (1664-65 CE)

The epigraph records the construction or renovation of a arbain khana (chilla khana).

Reference: Beveridge, JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 200-01; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 100-101; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 285-86; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 462-63.

1.4 Tombs

1. Nurud-Din Muhammad Jahangir, 1014-1037 AH (1605-1627 CE)

Inscription no. 1.4.1

Arabic inscription in the reign of the emperor Jahangir. From Inayat Allah’s tomb, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

Black basalt. No other information is available. Date: Ist Ramadan, 1017 AH (10th December, 1608 CE)

It records the construction of a tomb on the grave of a child of a noble man. Reference: A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 118; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 427.

2. Emperor Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan, 1038-1069 AH (1628-1658 CE)

Inscription no. 1.4.2

Arabic mixed with Persian inscription in the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan. From the dargah of Shah Makhdum, Rajshahi.

Nast’aliq character. Black basalt. Size: 0.914m × 0.304 m. Date: 1055 AH (1635­ 36 CE)

It records the construction of a tomb of a holy saint named Shah Darvish, by one ‘Ali Quli Beg.

Reference: S.Ahmad, ‘The ancient monuments of Varendra’ in Varendra Research Society Monograph, pp. 88-89; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 271-75; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 436-38.

1.5 Idgah

1. Emperor Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan, 1038-69 AH (1628-58 CE)

Inscription no. 1.5.1

Persian inscription in the reign of the emperor Shah Jahan. From Idgah, Dhanmondi, Dhaka City.


No other details, relating to the material (most likily stone) on which the text is carved, style of writing and its character are vailable. Date: 1050 AH (1640 CE) It records the construction of an idgah by Mir Abul Qasim.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 20-21; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 163; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 439-40.

2. Emperor Ahmad Shah, 1161-1167 AH (1748-1754 CE)

Inscription no. 1.5.2

Arabic Persian (first line is in Arabic and the rest is in Persian verse) inscription in the reign of emperor Ahmad Shah. The exact procurement place is not known, but now it is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Nast’aliq character. Slate stone of arched shape. Size: 0.458 in diametre. Date: 1163 AH (1749-50 CE)

It records the construction an idgah by Muti Mirdah.

Reference: S.Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 30-32, pl. XIII(a); S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 303-04, fig. 58; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 46; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 502-03, pl. 79(b).

2. Section B: Secular Buildings

2.1 Forts

No record is available.

2.2 Bridge

1. Emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib, 1068-1119 AH (1658-1707 CE)

Inscription no. 2.2.1

Persian inscription in the reign of emperor Aurangzib. From Diwanbagh, Narayanganj.

Date: 1102 AH (1960-91 CE). No other information is available. It records the construction of a bridge by Lalah Rajmal.

Reference: S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 179, note.1; A.Karim, CAPIB, pp.178-79.

2.3 Gegateways

1. Emperor Muhammad Shah, 1131-61 AH (1719-48 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.1

Two Persian inscriptions in the reign of Emperor Muhammad Shah. From Dinanath, Hugli, West Bengal.

Black basalt. No other detail is available. Date: The chronogram gives the date 1143 AH (1730-31 CE)

The epigraphs record the construction of a gateways to commemorate the coming of Shujud-Din Muhammad Khan, Nazim (viceroy) of Bengal.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1970, pp. 302-03; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 296-97, 300-01; A. Karim, JASP, vol. X, no.1, 1965, pp. 149-58; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 497-99.


2. Emperor Shah ‘Alam II, 1173-1221 AH (1759-1806 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.2

Persian inscription in the reign of Emperor Shah ‘Alam II. From Qadam Rasul Building, Nabiganj, Narayanganj.

No other detail is available. Date: 1220 AH (1805-06 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway to the Qadam Rasul Building by Ghlulam Muhammad, son of Ghulam Nabi.

Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 63-64; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, pp. 346-47; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 515.

2.4 Miscellaneous Construction

1. Shahabud-Din Muhammad Shah Jahan, 1038-1069 AH (1628-58 CE)

Inscription no.2.4.1

Persian inscription in the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan. From Husaini Dalan, Dhaka City.

No other details relating to the material on which the text was carved, style of writing and its character are available. Date: 1052 AH (1642-43 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of the Husaini Dalan by Mir Murad. Reference: S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 18-19; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 161; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 440-41.

Inscription no.2.4.2

Persian inscription in the reign of Emperor Shah Jahan. From Kesiari, Medinipur, West Bengal, India.

The style of writing is not available. Stone slab. Size: 0.660m × 0.380m. Date: The epigraph did not mention the date.

It records the construction of a well by one Sharifa.

Reference: W.H. Siddiqui, EIAP, 1961, pp. 71-72, pl. XXIII(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 456-57, pl. 87(b).

2. Emperor Mohiud-Din Muhammad Aurangzib, 1088-1119 AH (1658-1707 CE)

Inscription no.2.4.3

Persian inscription in the reign of Emperor Aurangzib. From Pandua, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Date: 1093 AH (1682 CE). No other details are available.

The epigraph records the construction of a Tanur house (kitchen building) in the dargah of Shaikh Jalalud-Din Tabrizi.

Reference: Ravenshaw, GRI, p.46; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p.104; S.Ahmad, IB, pp. 289-90; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 473.



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