| Site home | 

< Previous  |  Main contents  |  Section contents | Next >


[[ Other sections:  || Archaeology|| Architecture||  Arts and Crafts||  Cultural history||  || Folklore||  || Indigenous||  || Language & Literature||  || Living traditions||  || State & Culture  ]] 


5


CONCLUDING REMARKS


Sultanate period of Muslim architecture in Bengal is the most important period of it’s history. It is the period when Bengali architecture took a definite form, giving it’s separate identity distinct from the architecture of the Delhi Sultans or of Western Asia. Though it started with ideas taken from the earlier Islamic world through Delhi, by the middle of the 15th century it was completely independent with appropriation of local materials, techniques and even forms giving a new look suitable to the aspirations of the local people. In the adjustment and continuation a vernacular design thus developed with a new definition which has aptly been described as Bengal or Bangla type. This type along with others as for example the development of Bengali literature is the greatest contribution of the Bengal Sultans inspite of being themselves of foreign origin to the creation of Bengali culture. With the coming of the Mughal the architectural style was, however, discarded and substituted by the imperial Mughal style of ‘Northern India’ with it’s Persian components in a miniature form. Nevertheless the style continued in temple construction upto the period of the British Raj when it was totally eclipsed with the joint invasion by the Mughal and Western

European influences.


image

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ahmed, Abu Sayeed Mostaque. The Chhota Sona Mosque in Gaur. Karlsruhe- University, Ph.D Dissertation, Germany, 1997.

Ahmed, Saad. Barobazarer Itihas O Oitijya. Unpublished, M.Phil Thesis, Rajshahi University, 2000.

Ahmed, Shamsuddin. Inscriplions of Bengal, Vol. IV. Rajshahi University Varendra Research Museum, 1960.

Banglapedia, Relevant Vols. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 2003.

Bari, M.A. Khalifatabad. A Study of its History and Monuments. Unpublished M.Phil Thesis, Rajshahi University, 1980.


Begum, Ayesha. Forts in Mediaeval Bengal, An Architectural Study. Rajshahi University, Ph.D Thisis, 1992.

Brown, Percy. Indian Architecture (Islamic Period). Bombay: Taraporevala (5th edition), 1968.

Creiaghton, H. The Ruins of Gaur. London: Black, Parbury & Allige, 1817. Creswell, K.A.C. Early Muslim Architecture, Vol. I (Part I & II). Oxford: Clarendon

Press, 1968.

Cunningham, A. The Archaeological Survey of India Report, Vol. XV, Report of a Tour in Bihar and Bengal in 1879-80. Calcutta, 1882.

Dani, A.H. Muslim Architecture in Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 1961. Dani, A.H. Bibliography of Muslim Inscriptions in Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of

Pakistan Journal, Vol. II, 1952.

Haque, E. Islamic Art Heritage of Bangladesh. Dhaka: 1983.

Hasan, Perween. Sultanate Mosque-Types in Bangladesh: Origing and Development.

Harvard University Ph.D Thesis, Harvard, 1984.

Hasan, S.M. Muslim Mounments of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Islamic Foundation, 1980. Husain, A.B.M. (ed.). Gawr-Lakhnawti: A Survey of Historical Monuments and Sites in

Bangladesh. Dhaka Asiatic Soceity of Bangladesh, 1997.

Husain, A.B.M. (ed.). ‘Monuments of Husain Shah’s Reign’, Rajshahi University

Studies, Vol. III. Rajshahi University, 1970.

Husain, A.B.M. ‘Mosque Plan, An Outline History’, Journal of the Institute of Bangladesh Studies’, Vol. II. Rajshahi: University of Rajshahi, 1982-83.

Husain, A.B.M. The Manara in Indo-Muslim Archittcture. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Pakistan, 1970.

Karim, A. Corpus of the Arabic and Persian Inscriptions of Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1992.

Karim, A. Social History of the Muslims in Bengal (down to AD 538), second revised edition. Chittagong, 1985.

Khan, Abid Ali & Stapleton, H.E. Memoirs of Gaur and Pandua. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Department, 1931.

Khan, Muhammad Hafizullah. Teracotta Ornamentation in the Muslim Architecture of Bengal. Dhaka: Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, 1988.

List of Ancient Monuments in Bengal. Public Works Department, Bengal Secretariat Press, 1986.

Michell, George (ed.). The Islamic Heritage of Bengal. Paris: Unesco, 1984. Papadopoulo, A. Islam and Muslim Art. London: Thames and Hudson, 1980.

Ravenshaw, J.H. Gaur it’s Ruins and Inscriptions. London: Kegan Paul, 1878. Sarker, Sir J.N. (ed.). History of Bengal, Vol. II. Dhaka: University of Dhaka, 1948.


image

Plan of the Mosque Zafar Khan Ghazi


Tribeni, Hughli: Mosque of Zafar Khan Ghazi (1298), restored view

image image

Plan of the Bari Masjid Chhoto Pandua, Hughli: Bari Masjid (c. 1300), interior view



image

Hazrat Pandua: Adina Masjid (c-1373), qibla facade. Photo: Catherine B Asher


image

Hazrat Pandua: Adina Masjid (back view)


image

image

Adina Masjid ground plan


Dakhil Darwaza guard room


image

Gaur: Baish Gazi Wall (c 15th century).

image

Photo: Ayesha Begum


Gaur: Baish Gazi Wall,

a closer view from outside Photo: Ayesha Begum


image

image

Gaur, Gumti Darwaza, view from the inner side (late 15th /early 16th century). Photo: Catherine B Asher


Gaur: Darasbari Masjid, ground plan


image

image

image

Gaur: Darasbari Masjid (1479), present view from the east


(left) Gaur: Dhanikchawk Masjid (1481-86), ground plan


(right) Khania Dighi Masjid, decorative wall panel



image

image

Gour: Khania Dighi Masjid (c 1480), view from south-east


Gaur: Bara Sona Masjid (1493-1519), present view

from south-east



image

image

Bara Sona Masjid: A restored gateway


Gaur: Chhota Sona Masjid, eastern gate



image

(right) Gaur: Chhota Sona Masjid (1493-1519), view from south-east


(bottom) Chhota Sona Masjid: A mosaic panel of the courtyad (it appears that there were

36 such panels)


(bottom-right) Chhota Sona Masjid: A dilapitated side mihrab


image image


image

(left) Bagha Masjid (1523-24), a view from south-east corner


(bottom) Kushumba Mosque (1558), view from south-east


image


image

image

image

Rampal: Mosque of Baba Adam Shahid (1483), view from north-east


(left) Rampal Mosque:

ground plan


(right) Goaldi Mosque:

ground plan



image


image

image

image

Goaldi Mosque, a mihrab Sonargaon: Daulardi Mosque (17th century)


(left) Sonargaon: Goaldi Mosque (1519), view from south-east


(bottom) Daulardi Mosque, ground plan


image

Bagerhat: Shait Gambuz Mosque (c. 1459),

frontal view



image image

(bottom) Shait Gumbuz Mosque, interior view Shait Gambuz Mosque, a corner tower


image

Bagerhat: Nine-dome Mosque (end of 15th century)



image image

Bagerhat: Bibi Begni Mosque (end of 13th

century), ground plan Bara Bazar: Monohar Masjid, ground plan. Courtesy: Saad Ahmed


image

Bara Bazar: Satgachhaia Jami,

image

ground plan Courtesy: Saad Ahmed


Bara Bazar: Pir Pukur Masjid, ground plan Courtesy: Saad Ahmed


image

image

Bara Bazar: Restored royal gallaery of Pir Pukur Masjid (late Husayn Shahi, 1519-38)


Bara Bazar: Galakata Masjid (late Husayn Shahi 1519-38), a view from south-east corner


image

image

Bara Bazar: Restored ruins of Shukr Mallik Masjid (late Husayn Shahi)


Bara Bazar: Jorbangla Masjid (late Husayn Shahi), view from the east


image

image

(left) Bara Bazar: Jorbangla Masjid, ground plan Courtesy:

Saad Ahmed


image

(right) Singhdah Awlia Masjid, ground plan Courtesy: Saad Ahmed


Bara Bazar: Restored ruins of Noongala Masjid (late Husayn Shahi period)


image

image

image

Barisal: Komlapur Mosque (end of 15th century), ground plan


(left) Tomb of Khan Jahan, ground plan


(right) Hazrat Pandua: Eklakhi Mausoleum,

ground plan


image

image

Darasbari inscription of Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah, 884 AH


Mahdipur (Gunmant Mosque) inscription of Jalaluddin Fath Shah, 889 AH


image

image

Phuti Masjid (old Malda) inscription of Alauddin Husayn Shah, 900 AH


Chatmohar (Pabna) inscription of Masum Khan Kabuli, 989 AH



[[ Other sections:  || Archaeology|| Architecture||  Arts and Crafts||  Cultural history||  || Folklore||  || Indigenous||  || Language & Literature||  || Living traditions||  || State & Culture  ]]