| Site home | 

< Previous  |  Main contents  |  Section contents | Next >


[[ Other sections:  || Archaeology|| Architecture||  Arts and Crafts||  Cultural history||  || Folklore||  || Indigenous||  || Language & Literature||  || Living traditions||  || State & Culture  ]] 


4


MONUMENTS KNOWN THROUGH LITERARY AND INSCRIPTIONAL REFERENCES


Inscription is an important source to study the non-extant monuments of different periods. It helps in fixing the chronology of the rulers, their identity and dynastic changes. It also helps to trace the gradual territorial expansion of the rulers. It tells us about the builders of the secular and religious buildings and also to understand the gradual development of writing and it’s styles. Inscription thus has a multidimensional value to reconstruct the political and cultural history of a nation.

The conquest of Bengal by the Muslims ushered a new era in the sphere of art and architecture. The conquerors showed ingenuity to erect beautiful buildings such as– mosques, madrasas, khanqas, tombs, palaces, gateways and many others. They frequently fixed up inscriptions to their constructions to commemorate their names and fames.

Many of the inscriptions of Bengal rulers have now been discovered and deciphered. Their contents are certainly important not only in delineating the history of Bengal and the Sultanate rule, but also to speak of the magnitudes of building activities of the time. In the following pages an attempt has been made to list up the inscriptions so far found. These have been arranged according to historical lines, pointing out as far as

possible the structure types, now vanished but giving an idea of the extent of patronage the Sultans gave to the architecture of the time.

Inscriptions of Bengal Governors under the Sultans of Delhi

1. Section A: Religious Buildings (imaratul mubaraka)

1.1 Mosques

1. Jalalud-Din Masud Jani, 610-24 AH (1213-27 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.1

Arabic inscription during the governorship of Jalalud-Din Mas’ud Jani. From Gangarampur, West Dinajpur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Size: 2.324m × 0.368m. Date: 647 AH (1249 CE).


It records the erection of a sacred house (it many be a mosque, a shrine, a tomb or any other religious building. Cunningham discovered the inscription tablet from a mosque; so the sacred house mentioned in the inscription may be a mosque).

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 45; Yazdani, EIM, 1913-14, pp. 19­ 22, pl. VIII(a); A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 163-64; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.2, no, 2; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 4-8, fig.2; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 30-32, pl.1(b).

2. Mughithud-Din Yuzbak, 648-55 AH (1250-57 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.2

Arabic inscription during the governorship of Mughithud-Din Yuzbak. From Sitalmat, Naogaon.

Size: 1.156m × 0.292m. Date: Ramadan, 652 AH (1254-55 CE).

It records the construction of a sacred structure (imaratul mubaraka) by Ahmad bin Mas’ud (it may be a mosque).

Reference: A.B.M. Habibullah, Bangladesh Lalit Kala, vol. I, no. 2 with pl., pp. 89-94; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 32-36, pl. 2(a).

3. Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us, 690-701 AH (1291-1301 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.3

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us. From Munghyr, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 1.905m × 0.228m. Date: 1st Muharram, 697 AH (21 August, 1297 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us and during the governorship of Firuz Aitgin.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 247-48, pl. V; Yazdani,

EIM, 1917-18, pp. 10-11, pl.XV(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 4-5, no. 5; S. Ahmad,

IB, pp. 12-15, fig. 5; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 11-13, pl. 3(b-c); A. Karim, CAPIB, 45-48, pl.3(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.4

Arabic (mixed with a few Persian words) inscription of the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us. From the dargah of Maulana ‘Ata at Deokot, West Dinajpur, West Bengal, India.

Basalt stone. Size: 1.041m × 0.304m. Date: 697 AH (1297 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us during the governorship of Zafar Khan Bahram Aitgin.

Reference: H. Blochmann, Historical Description of Dinajpur, p.51; E. Thomas, Chronicles of the Pathan Kings of Delhi, p. 149; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 102-104; Yazdani, EIM, 1917-18, pp. 11-13; A. H. Dani, BMIB, p. 5,

no. 6; S. Ahmed, IB, pp. 15-18; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 48-53, pl. 3(b).


4. Sultan Shamsud-Din Firuz Shah, 701-22 AH (1301-22 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.5

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Firuz Shah. From Hatim Khan’s palace, Bihar, India.

The style of writing is Naskh combination with Tughra. Basalt stone. Size: 1.066m × 0.304m. Date: 1st Rajab, 715 AH (1st October, 1315 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Hatim Khan, the governor of Bihar. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 249; Yazdani, EIM, 1917­ 18, pp. 34-35, pl. XLL(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 7-8, no. 10; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.

29-30; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 15-16; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 69-71, pl. 6(c).


Inscriptions of the Independent Sultans of Bengal Inscriptions of the Ilyas Shahi Sultans

5. Sultan Shamsud-Din Ilyas Shah, 743-59 AH (1342-58 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.6

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Ilyas Shah of Bengal. From Bania Pukur, Calcutta, West Bengal.

Tughra character. Black basalt stone. Size: 1.295m × 0.228m. Date: 743 AH (1342 CE).

It refers to the construction of a mosque by Sultan Shamsud-Din Ilyas Shah in honour of Shaikh ‘Ala al-Haque.

Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 10, no, 13; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 31-33; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 77-82, pl. 7(b).

6. Sultan Sikandar Shah, 759-92 AH (1358-89 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.7

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Sikandar Shah of Bengal. From Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.762m × 0.406m. Date: 1st Muharram, 769 AH (28 August, 1367 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Taghi Khan, son of Bughra Khan. Reference: Q.Ahmad, EIAP, 1963, pp.1-4, pl. (a); Q.Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 52-55, pl. 11(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 84-87, pl. 8 (b).

Inscription no. 1.1.8

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Sikandar Shah. From Adina Mosque, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

The style of writing is Naskh combined with Tughra. Basalt stone slab. Size: 1.448m × 0.254m. Date: 6th Rajab, 770 AH (15th February, 1369 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by order of Sultan Sikandar Shah. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 256-57; Ravenshaw, GRI,


p. 62, pl. 46, no. 1; Cunningham, ASR vol. XV, p. 93; P. Horn, EI, vol. II, pp. 282­ 83; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 139-40, pl. VI(a); Beveridge, JASB, 1895, p. 212; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 12, no. 16; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 35-38, fig. 14; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 87-92, pl. 8(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.9

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Sikandar Shah of Bengal. From Mulla Simla, Hugli, West Bengal.

Tughra character. Black basalt. Date: 777 AH (1375-76 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Mukhlis Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 291-92; A. H. Dani,

BMIB, pp. 12-13, no. 17; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 38-40; A.Karim, CAPIB, pp. 92-94.

Inscriptions of the Sultans of the House of Raja Ganesh

7. Sultan Jalalud-Din Muhammad Shah, 818-836 AH (1415-33 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.10

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Muhammad Shah of Bengal. From Sultanganj, Godagari, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 1.066m × 0.215m. Date: 5th Jamadi Awwal, 835 AH (12th Januaray, 1432 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by one Sadrud-Din Amir Doda (?). Reference: A.R. Hashmi, Proceedings of the Historical Records and Archives

Commission, Pakistan, 2nd session, 1954, pp. 50-60; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 14,

no. 19; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 46-48, fig. 16; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 100-105, pl. 9(b). Inscription no. 1.1.11

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalulud-Din Muhammad Shah of Bengal. From Mandra. Dhaka.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 10th Jamadi Awwa, 836 AH (3rd January, 1433 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by one Ulugh Dinar Khan.

Reference: A.H. Dani, JASB, vol. XVIII, 1952, no. 2, pp. 65-66 with a pl.; A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 14, no. 18; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 45; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 105-110, pl. 10.

8. Sultan Shamsud-Din Ahmad Shah, 836-39 AH (1433-36 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.12

Arabic mixed with Persian Inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Ahmad Shah of Bengal. From Mu’azzampur, Rupganj, Narayanganj, Bangadesh.

It records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Ahmad Shah by Firuz Khan.

Reference: S. A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 54-55; A.H. Dani, JASB, vol. XVIII, 1952, pp. 166-67; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 15, no. 20; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 110-11.


Inscriptions of the later Ilyas Shahi Sultans

9. Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah, 839-64 AH (1436-59 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.13

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah of Bengal. From Hazrat Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 22nd Rabiul Awwal, 847AH (20th July, 1443 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 83-84; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 288-89, pl. VII, no.3; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 76, pl. 49, no. 8A;

A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 114; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 42, no. 68; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 141-42; A. Karim, JASP, vol. XIII, no.3, pp. 325-28; Z.A. Desai, JASBD, vol. XXIII, no. 1, pp. 5-11; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 113-16, pl. 11(a). Inscription no. 1.1.14

Two Arabic inscriptions of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Balighata, Jangipur, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Naskh character. combined with an intricate type of Tughra. Basalt stone. Size: one is 0.788m × 0.280m and the other is little larger than the former. Date: 2nd Ramadan, 847 AH (both) (27th December, 1443 CE).

These two inscriptions record the erection of two mosques by Khan Ulugh Sarafraz Khan.

Reference: G.D. Sarkar, JASB, N.S.XIII, 1917, p. 151, pl. VI; Abdul Wali, JASB,

N.S. XX, 1924, pp. 502-03; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 49-51, fig. 17; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 10, no. 21, A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 116-19, pl. 12(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.15

An Arabic mixed with Persian Inscription of the reign of Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah of Bengal. From Mandaroga Muhalla, Bhagalpur, Bihar.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.914m 0.458m (the inscribed surface is 0.761m × 0.330 m). Date: 850 AH (1446-47 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khan Mu’azzam Khurshid Khan. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, XLI, p. 106; P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 280, pl. I;

S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 51-52, fig. 18; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 93-96, pl. 18(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 119-22, pl. 12(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.16

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasiud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Bara (Balanagar), Birbhum, West Bengal.

The style of writing is Naskh of an elegant type. Written on an oblong slab of basalt. Date: 20th Jamadi II, 854 AH (18th August, 1450 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Ahmad Khan Sarwar.

Reference: Birbhum Bivarani, part-II, published by the Birbhum Research Association, series 2, p. 63; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 53, fig. 19; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 124-25, pl. 13(b).


Inscription no. 1.1.17

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Ghagra, Kishoreganj.

Date: 2nd Dhil Q’ada, 856 AH (19th November, 1452 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by Khan Mu’azzam Ulugh Khan. Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 136, no. 141; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 54-55; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 125-26.

Inscription no. 1.1.18

Arabic inscription of the reign of Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Navagram, Pabna. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.580m × 0.241m. Date: 22nd Dhil Q’ada, 858 AH (14th November, (1454 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Rahim Khan.

Reference: A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, ASCB, 1200-1576, 1998, pp. 371-73; A.K.M.

Yaqub Ali, JVRM, vol. VI, pp. 99-106; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 126-28, pl. 14(a). Inscription no. 1.1.19

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasriud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Mughaltuli, old Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Date: 19th Shaban, 859 AH (4th August, 1455 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 77; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 294-95; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 72, pl. 46, no. 3; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, pp. 149-50; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 16, no. 22; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 55-56; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 128-29, pl. 14(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.20

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Satgaon, Hugli, West Bengal.

Date: 861 AH (1456-57 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Khan al-A’zam Tarbiyat Khan. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, part-I, p. 293; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol XLII, 1873, part-I, pp. 26-27; R.D. Banerji, SPP, vol. XV, pp. 26-27; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 16, no. 23; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 56-57; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 129-30.

Inscription no. 1.1.21

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Narinda, Dhaka.

Basalt stone slab. Size: 0.381m × 0.210m. Date: 861 AH (1456-57 CE). It records the erection of a mosque by Musammat Bakht Binat.

Reference: S.M. Hasan, GMAA, p. 28; Stapleton, JASB, New Series, vol. VI, 1910, pp. 144-45; S.M. Taifoor, GOD, p. 82; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 17; no. 24; S.

Ahmad, IB, pp. 57-58; Karim, JASP, vol. XII, no. II, 1967, pp. 289-92; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 130-33, pl. 15(a).

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Kiwarjor, Itna, Kishoreganj.

Date: Dhil Q’ada, 863 AH (1459 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khan Mu’azzam Ulugh Dhal Qadar Khan. Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 136-37; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 137.

10. Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah, 861-879 AH (1459-74 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.23

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. It was 1st discovered by H. Blochmann from Tribeni near the mosque and tomb of Zafar Khan, Tribeni, Hugli, West Bengal.

Naskh characters. Size: 0.660m × 0.458m. Date: 1st Muharram, 860 AH (11th December, 1455 CE).

The epigraph records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Ajmal Khan, the great Khan and the great Khaqan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, p. 290; R.D. Banerji, SPP, vol. XV, p.27; Y.K. Bukhari, EIAP, 1953-54, pp. 20-21, pl. VII(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 21-22, no. 29; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 68-70; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 146­ 150, pl. 17(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.24

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah. From Qasba-i-Baru, Birbhum, West Bengal.

Naskh of mediocre quality. Size: 1.066m × 0.280m. Date: 1st Jumada, 864 AH (23rd February 1460 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Ajalka (?) Khan, son of Tarbiyat (?) Khan.

Reference: Y.K. Bukhari, EIAP, 1953 and 1954, pp. 21-22, pl. VIII (a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 22, no. 30; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 70-71; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 150­ 52, pl. 18(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.25

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. It is from the Shrine of the Chihil Ghazi, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Tughra character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.559m × 0.254m. Date: 16th of Safar, 865 AH (1st December, 1460 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 272-74; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 23, no. 33; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 71-73; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 152-154.

Inscription no. 1.1.26

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah. From Mahi-Santosh, Naogaon, Bangladesh.

Tughra character. Size: 0.914m × 0.280m. Date: 865 AH (1460/61 CE).


The epigraph records the erection of a mosque during the reign of Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah by Ulugh Iqrar Khan through Khan Mu’azzam Ashraf Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, pp. 290-291; A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 23, no. 32; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 73-75; A.Karim, CAPIB, pp. 154-56.

Inscription no. 1.1.27

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 1.143m × 0.355m. Date: 865 AH (1461 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Khurshid Khan, the chief of the royal Guards outside the palace.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pl. 1, pp. 295-96; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 75-76; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 22, no.31; Z.A. Desai, EIAPS, 1955-56, pp. 13-14; A.Karim, CAIPB, pp. 156-57, pl. 18(b)

Inscription no. 1.1.28

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Barbakabad, Naogaon, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Size: 1.10m × 0.42m. Date. 867 AH (1463 CE). It records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Khan Hasan.

Reference: Sultan Ahmad, JPHS, vol. XLVI, 1998, no. 2, pp.61-65; M. Haque,

JIBS, vol. X, 2002, pp.1-16.

Inscription no. 1.1.29

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah. From Hatkhola, Sylhet, Bangladesh.

Tughra character. Size: 0.685m × 0.304m. Date: 5th Safar, 868 AH (19th October, 1463 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khurshid Khan.

Reference: S. Ahmad, EIM, 1935-36, pp. 57-58, pl. XXXVIII(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 24, no. 34; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 76-77, fig. 23; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 157-158, pl. 18(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.30

Arabic inscription of the reign of Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Deotala, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Engraved on a slab of black basalt. Date: 868 AH (1464 CE). It records the erection of a jami mosque, during the reign of Barbak Shah by one Ulugh Murabit Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 296-297; Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 95-96; R.D. Banerjee, Banglar Itihas, vol. II, p. 221; A. A. Khan & H.E. Stapleton, MGP, pp. 167-69; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 25-26, 35; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.77-79, fig. 24; A.Karim, CAPIB, pp. 158-60, pl. 19(a).

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah. From Peril, Manikganj, Bangaldesh.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.609m × 0.280m. Date: 5th Shawwal, 869 AH (31st May, 1465 CE).

It records the construction of a (mosque?) by Majlis Khurshid, during the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah.

Reference: Y.K. Bukhari, EIAP, 1953 & 1954, p. 22, pl. VIII(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 25, no. 36; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 79-80; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 160-61, pl. 19(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.32

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Deotala, Malda, West Bengal.

Badly damaged inscription. Language Arabic. Date: 879 AH(?) (1474 CE). It records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Murabit Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1874, pp. 296-97; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 80-81; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 162.

Inscription no. 1.1.33

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Gurai, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt Stone. Size: 0.838m × 0.431m. Date: 29th Ramadan, 871 AH (4th May, 1467 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khan Majlis, in the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah.

Reference: Y.K. Bukhari, EIAP, 1953 and 1954, pp. 22-23, pl. VIII (c); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 26, no. 39; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 83-85; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 164­ 65, pl. 20(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.34

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Salik Masjid, Bashirhat, 24 Paraganas, West Bengal.

Naskh caaracter. Size: 0.330m × 0.152m. Date: 871 AH (1466 CE). This two lines inscription records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: JPASB, Vol. VI, 1910, p. 29, pl. 5; R.D. Banerji, JBORS, Vol. IV, 1918, pp. 179-80, pl. II; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 27-28, no. 41; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.

88-89; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp-169-70, pl. 20(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.35

Arabic inscription (fragmentary) in the reign of Barbak Shah. From Mahi- Santosh, Naogaon, Bangladesh.

This two limes Inscription is written in Arabic. Date: 876 AH (1471-72 CE). It records the erection of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, p. 291; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 23, no.42; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 90-91; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 170-71.

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From: Bayang, near Mirzaganj, Barisal.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.635m × 0.304m. Date. AH 870 (1465 CE) /876 AH (1471 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by one Ajyal Khan, son of Manjh(?) Reference: W.N. Lees, JASB, vol. XXIX, 1860, pl. 1, pp 406-407; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 81-83; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 25; Z.A. Desai, EIAPS, 1955-56, pp. 15-16; A Karim, CAPIB, pp. 171-73, 21(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.37

Arabic mixed with Persian Inscription in the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Rasti Khan Mosque, Jubra, Hathazari, Chittagonj.

Naskh character. Date: 25th Ramada, 878 AH (1474 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Rasti Khan.

Reference: R.D. Banerji, JBORS, Vol. IV, 1918, p. 181, pl. III; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 91, fig. 25; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 173-74, pl. 21(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.38

An Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah (according to A. Karim),/Nasirud-Din Mahmud II (according to S. Ahmad)/ and Mughal Emperor Aurangzid (according to Z.A. Desai). From Kalna, Burdwan, West Bengal.

The style of script is plain Naskh. Carved on a coarse basalt slab. Size: 0.711m

× 0.355m. Date: During the time of Barbak Shah (according to A. Karim), 895 AH (1489 CE) (according to S. Ahmad), 1080 AH (1669-70 CE) (according to

Z.A. Desai).

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: S. Ahmad, EID, 1933-34, pp. 1-2; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 138-36, fig. 32;

A. Karim, JASP, vol. XIII, no.3, 1968, pp. 319-28; Z.A. Desai, JASBD, Vol. XXIII, no.1, 1978, pp. 11-17; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 174-79, pl. 22(a). Inscription no. 1.1.39

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh, India,

Naskh charecter. Black Basalt stone. Size: 0.559m × 0.254m. Date: In the reign of Barbak Shah.

It records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Iqrar Khan in the reign of Barbak Shah. Reference: Y.K. Bukhari, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 47-48, pl. XII (b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 179-80.

Inscription no. 1.1.40

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah. From Atia Masjid, Tangail. Now it is preserved in the National Museum, Dhaka.

Naskh character. The date cannot be deciphered, but Sultan Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah’s name is very clear.


This four lines inscription records the construction of a mosque (?) in the reign of Sultan Barbak Shah.

Reference: Bangladesh District Gazetteer (Dhaka, 1983), Tangail, pp.; A Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 523-24.

11. Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah, 879-886 AH (1474-481 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.41

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah of Bengal.. From Sultanganj, Godagari, Nawabganj.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.635m × 0.304m. Date: 879 AH (1474-76 CE). It records the erection of a mosque by Ulugh Sufi Khan.

Reference: S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 94-96, fig. 26; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 181-82, pl. 23(a). Inscription no. 1.1.42

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah of Bengal. From Chhota Pandua, Hugli, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Date: 1st Muharram, 882 AH (15th April, 1477 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Majlis, the great and liberal Majlis, in the reign of Yusuf Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, p. 300; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, pp. 275-76, pl. VI, no. 1; Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 124-26; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 30-31, no. 48; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 97-100, fig. 27;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 182-84, pl. 23(b). Inscription no. 1.1.43

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah of Bengal. From Chamkatti Mosque, Gaur, West Bengal.

Date: 1st Muharram, 883 AH (4th April, 1478 CE).

It records the erection of a Jami Mosque by Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah himself. Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 60-61; Ravenshaw, GRI, 1878, p. 30; Creighton, Ruins of Gaur, pl. XII; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 96-97; S.M. Hasan, GMAA, pp. 3-9 with pl.; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 184-85.

Inscription no. 1.1.44

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From: Umarpur, near Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Tughra character. Black basalt stone. Size: 3.582m × 0.685m. Date: 884 AH (1479-80 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by order of the Sultan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pl.1, p. 276; A. Cunningham,

RAS, 1879-80, vol. XV, pl. XXII, pp. 76-85; H. Beveradge, JASB, vol. LXIV,

1895, pl.1, pp. 222-23; H.J. Ravenshaw, GRI., p. 50, pl. 47, no.5; Abid Ali Khan, MGP, pp.70-77; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.104-06; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.31; Z.A. Desai, EIAPS, 1955-56, pp. 15-16; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 185-86, pl. 24.

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From Darasbari mosque, Firuzpur, Gaur, Nawabganj.

The style of writing is Naskh of the Bengal type in Tughra. Black basalt stone. Size: 3.430m × 0.635m. Date: 884 AH (1479-80 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by Sultan Yusuf Shah himself. Reference: Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 76; M.I. Bakhsh, Khurshid Jahan Numa in JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 222-23;

A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 76-77, pl. III; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 15-16, pl. IV(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 31, no. 49; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 104-06, fig. 28; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 186-88, pl, 25.

Inscription no. 1.1.46

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From: Tantipara Mosque, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Cunningham records that this mosque had two inscriptions– one on the outside, measuring 0.537m × 0.508m and the other inside measuring 0.838m × 0.458m. Date: 18th Ramadan, 885 AH (21 November, 1480 CE).

One of these, records the construction of a mosque by Khan-i-Azam Mirsad Khan. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 277; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 61-62; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 22, pl. 48, no. 6; M.I. Bakhsh, KJN in JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 217-18; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 62-63;

A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 32-33, no. 52; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 106-08; S.M. Hasan,

GMAA, pp. 10-12; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 188-89, pl. 26.

Inscription no. 1.1.47

Arabic inscription (the last line is a Persian couplet from Shaikh Sadi’s Bustan) of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From: Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.825m × 0.304m. Date: 885 AH (1480 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by the Malik (?) the exalted Khaqan. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, pp. 293-94; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 32, no. 51; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 108-09; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 189-91.

Inscription no. 1.1.48

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From Shank Mohan Mosque, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Language is Arabic. Stone slab. Size: 0.762m × 0.152m. Date: Sultan Shamsud- Din Yusuf Shah’s reign.

It records the construction of mosque.

Reference: Blockmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 297-98; Cunningham, pp. 77-78; Munshi Ilahi Bakhsh, Khurshid Jahan Numa in JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 199-200; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 147-48; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 29, no. 44; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 92-94; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 192-93.


Inscription no. 1.1.49

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From Sylhet, Bangaldesh.

Fine Tughra character. No other information is available.

The Inscription records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Shamsud- Din Yusuf Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 277-81; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 29-30, no. 46; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 109-12; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 194.

Inscription no. 1.1.50

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah. From Faqir’s Mosqe, Hathazari, Chittagong.

Tughra character. Black basalt stone. Size: 1.30m × 0.46m. Date: Due to obliteration of letters the exact date could not deciphered, but it was in the reign of Shamsud-Din Yusuf Shah.

It records the erection of a mosque.

Reference: A. Karim, JASP, vol. XII, no. 3, 1967, pp. 322-25, with pl.; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 194-95.

12. Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah, 886-93 AH (1481-88 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.51

Arabic Inscription in the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah of Bengal. From Bandar, Khizirpur, Narayanganj, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 1st Dhi’l Qa’da, 886 AH (22nd December,

1481 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Malik Baba Salih.

Reference: Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 282-83, pl. VII, no. I; S.A. Hasan, NAD, p. 57; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 34, no. 53; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 113-114;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 196-98, pl. 27(b). Inscription no. 1.1.52

Arabic Inscription in the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah of Bengal. From Dhamrai, Dhaka.

Date: 10th Jamadi I, 887 AH (27th June, 1482 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Malik Akhund Shir, the Mir-i-Bahr, in the reign of Jalalud-Din Fath Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp.109-10; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 34, no. 54; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 117-118; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 199-201.

Inscription no. 1.1.53

An Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Baba Adam Shahid’s Mosque Vikrampur, Munshiganj, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: Rajb, 888 AH (August, 1483 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Malik al-Mu’azzam Malik Kafur.


Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 284-85; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XL, p. 135; A. Gupta, JASB, vol. LVII, 1889, pp. 17-27, pl. V; S.A. Hasain, NAD, p. 69; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 35, no. 56; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 118-20;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 201-03, pl. 28(b). Inscription no. 1.1.54

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah of Bengal. From Mograpara, Sonargaon,Narayanganj, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 889 AH (1484 CE).

It records the erection of a mosque by Muqarrab al-Daulat Malik (the full name could not be deciphered) –al-Din, the governor, and Sar-i-Lashkar and Wazir of Iqlim Mu’azzamabad.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 285-86; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 141; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 35-36, no. 57; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 121­ 22; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 203-05.

Inscription no. 1.1.55

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Mahdipur, Gaur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 889 AH (1484 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 65; P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 287-88;

A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 85-87, pl. IV(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 36, no. 58; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 122-24, fig. 30; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 205-07, pl. 29(a). Inscription no. 1.1.56

Arabic (a few words in Persian) inscription in the reign of Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Gaur area, Malda, West Bengal.

Black basalt. Size: 0.65m × 0.28m. Date: 891 AH (1486 CE). It records the erection of a mosque by Malik Takar.

Reference: A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, JIBS, vol. XI, 1988, pp. 12-13, pl. I; A.Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 524-25.

Inscription no. 1.1.57

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Mahdipur, Gaur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 1.320m × 0.225m. Date: Ramadan 891 AH (September, 1486 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Sayyid al A’zam Sayyid Dastur. Reference: P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 287, pl. 2; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 36-37, no. 59;

S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 124-25; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 207-08, pl. 30(a). Inscription no. 1.1.58

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Challa Masjid, Mahdipur, Gaur, W.Bengal, India.

Basalt stone. Size: 1.70m × 0.10m. Date: Most probable in the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah.


It records (the construction is not available, but discovered from a mosque) the erection of a mosque(?).

Reference: P. Horn, EI, vol. II, pp. 287-88; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 125-26; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 208-09.

Inscription no. 1.1.59

Arabic inscription (only a few words are in Persian) of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Trishbigha, Satgaon, Hugli, West Bengal, India. Naskh character. Basalt stone. Date: 4th Muharram, 892 AH (1st January, 1487 CE) The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Majlis Nur.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 293-94; R.D. Banerji, BSPP, vol. XV, 1316 B.S., pp. 30-31, pl. VI; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 37, no. 60; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 126-27; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 210-11.

Inscription no. 1.1.60

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Jalalud-Din Fath Shah. From Briitsh Museum, London.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.635m × 0.292m. Date: 893 AH (1487-88 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by (one) Mansur.

Reference: S.M. Hasan, JASP, vol. XIII, no. I, April, 1968, pp. 49-55 with pl.;

S.M. Hasan, GMAA, pp. 14-20; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 211-212.


Inscriptions of the Habshi Sultans of Bengal

13. Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah II, 893-96 AH (1487-90 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.61

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah II of Bengal. From Biral, Dinajpur.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.585m × 0.260m. Date: 12th Jamadi II, 887 AH (29th July, 1482 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Qiran Khan.

Reference: S. Sarafuddin, VRSM, no. 6, March, 1935, pp. 1-2 with pl; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 38, no. 61; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 128-30, fig. 31; A. Karim, JASBD, vol. XVII, no. I, April, 1972, pp. 1-10 with pl; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 214-19, pl. 30(b). Inscription no. 1.1.62

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah of Bengal. From Katra, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh charcter. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.660m × 0. 228m. Date: 886(?) AH (1481-82 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Majlis Shahata(?) Khalid(?) (the name of builder could not be properly read).

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 299-300; A. Cunninghm, ASR, vol. XV, p. 78; Rvenshaw, GRI, p. 76, pl. 49, no. 8; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955 & 1956, pp. 16-17, pl. IV(c); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 29,64; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 133­ 34; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 219-20, pl. 31(a).

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah. From Goamalti,

Gaur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. No other details are available. Date: 894 AH (1489 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Mukhlis Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 299; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 74, pl. 48, no. 7; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 38-39, no. 62; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 131-32;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 222-23, pl. 32(a). Inscription no. 1.1.64

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah. From Chunakhali, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

A typical Bengal Tughra of Bow and Arrow Variety. Basalt stone. Size: 0.29m × 0.60m. Date: 2nd Muharram, 896 AH (15th November, 1490 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Majlis Barbak.

Reference: H. Beveridge, PASB, 1893, p. 55; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 42, no. 69; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 140-41; A. Karim, JASP, vol. XIII, no. 3, December, 1968, pp. 323-25; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1973, pp. 36-43, pl. IV; Z.A. Desai, JASBD, vol. XXIV-XXVI, 1979-81, pp. 11-20 with pl; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 223-26, pl. 32(b).

14. Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah, 896-99 AH (1490-93 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.65

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah of Bengal. From Maulana ‘Ata’s Dargah, Deokot, W. Dinajpur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.585m × 0.304m. Date: 896 AH (1490-91 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 107; H. Blockmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 289-90; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pl. 98-99; G. Yazdani, EIM, 1929-30, pp. 11-12, pl. VII(b); A. H. Dani, BMIB, p. 43, no. 70; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 143-44, fig. 34; A. Karim, CAPIB. pp. 227-28, pl. 33(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.66

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah. From Champanagar, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.736m × 0.255m. Date: 10th Muharram, 897 AH (13th November, 1491 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Khan A’zam M’utabar Khan. Reference: S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 144-45; A.A. Kadir, EIAP, 1961, pp. 37-38, pl. XI(b); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 98-99; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 228-29, pl. 27(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.67

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah. From Kalna, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.533m × 0.230m. Date: 897 AH (1491-92 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 391; Bloch, ASibC, 1903­


04, part-4, p. 4; A. Wali, BPP, vol. XIV, 1917, p. 100; Z. A. Desai, EIAP, 1955 &

1956, pp. 19-20, pl. V(b); A. H. Dani, BMIB, p. 39, no. 63; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.

132-33; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 29-30, pl. 33(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.68

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah. From Chapai-Nawabganj.

Tughra character. Black basalt stone. Date: 10th Rabiul Awwal, 898 AH (5th Janurary, 1493 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by Ulugh Khurshid.

Reference: PASB, 1890, p. 242; G. Yazdani, EIM, 1929-30, pl. VIII(a); A.H.

Dani, BMIB, p. 43, no. 71; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 147-48, fit. 36; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 232-33, pl. 34(b).


Inscription of the Husain Shahi Sultans of Bengal

15. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.69

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah of Bengal. From Deopara, Hugli, W.Bengal, India.

Fine Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.37m × 0.20m. Date: Jamadi II, 899 AH (March, 1494 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Majlis al-Majalis Majlis Barbak.

Reference: M.F. Khan, EIAP, 1965, pp. 23-24, pl. IX(b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 235-36, pl. 82(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.70

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Chalispara, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Date: 10th Dhi’l Q’ada, 899 AH (12 August, 1494 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Majlis Rahat.

Reference: Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 78, pl. 50, no. 10; Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1878, pp. 301-02; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 45, no. 73; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 149-51;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 63; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 236-37, pl. 35(a). Inscription no. 1.1.71

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Phuti mosque, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Date: 20th Shawwal, 900 AH (5th July, 1495 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Sher Khan.

Reference: Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 302; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 78­ 79, pl. 50, no. 11; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 45, no. 74; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 151-52;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 63; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 237-38, pl. 35(b).

Two Arabic inscriptions of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah of Bengal. From Kheraul, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

Both epigraphs in Naskh character. Date: (Both the inscriptions bear same date) 900 AH (1494-95 CE).

Both the epigraphs record the construction of a mosque by Raf’at Khan. Reference: G.D. Sarker, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, pp. 148-49, pl. I and II; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 46, no. 76; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 152-53; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 63; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 138-39, pl. 36 & 37(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.73

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah of Bengal. From Kusumba, Naogaon.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.585m × 0.255m. Date: 23rd Jamadi I, 904 AH (27th December, 1498 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ramandaula.

Reference: The Ancient Munuments of Varendra (North Bengal) Appendix V, vol. XVI, no. 34; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 155-56, fig. 39; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 64; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 244-45, pl. 38(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.74

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Margram, P.S. Khargram, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

Naskh with Tughra style of writing. Date: 25rd Rajab, 904 AH (8th March, 1499 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh ‘Ata Malik.

Reference: S. Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 28-29, pl. II (a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 47, no. 79; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 154-55, fig. 37; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 64; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 245-46, pl. 38(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.75

Arabic mixed with a few Persian words inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud- Din Husayn Shah. From Babargram, Murshidabad, West Bengal, India.

Naskh with Tughra character. Basalt stone. Date: 11rd Rajab, 905 AH (11th

February, 1500 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Malik Sandal.

Reference: G.D. Sarker, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, pp. 148-49, pl. III;

A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 47-48, no. 80; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 156-57, fig. 38; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 64; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 246, pl. 39(a). Inscription no. 1.1.76

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Mahalbari, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Naskh character (it has a tendency towards Nasta’liq). Black basalt. Size: 0.508m × 0.255m. Date: Jamadi II, 905 AH (7th February, 1500 CE).

The epigraph records the erection of a mosque by Main Malik, son of Rahimud-Din.


Reference: A.K.M. Zakaariah, JASBD, vol. XXII, no. I, 1977, pp. 20-25 with pl.;

A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, ASCB, 1998, pp. 373-74, pl. XI; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 247, pl. 39(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.77

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. It is now in a private possession in London.

Date: 10th Dhil Hijja, 905 AH (8th July, 1500 CE). It records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: S.M. Hasan, GMAA, pp. 28-29; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 248, pl. 40(a). Inscription no. 1.1.78

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. S. Ahmad said that it was found at Machain in Manikganj, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Date: 22nd Jamadi I, 907 AH (3rd December, 1501 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 293; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 48, no. 82; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 159-60; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 65; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 250-51.

Inscription no. 1.1.79

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 1.143m × 0.304m. Date: 12th Rajab, 907 AH (21st January, 1502 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Sar-i-Lashkar Majlis Mahmud. Reference: S.H. Ashkari, Current Studies, 1954, p.19; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 160; Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, p.40; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 103-104, pl. 20(c); A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 65; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 251-52, pl. 40(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.80

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Banhara mosque, Bihar, India.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.915m × 0.39m. Date: Dhil Qada, 908 AH (April-May, 1503 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. Reference: H. Blochmann, PASB, 1870, pp.187-98; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 49, no. 84, S. Ahmad, IB, p. 161; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 104-107, pl. 21(a); A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 254-56, pl. 41(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.81

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Suata, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.60m × 0.32m. Date: 909 AH (1502-03 CE). Its records the construction of a jami mosque by Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. Reference: S.S. Hussain, EIAP, 1975, pp. 34-35, pl. V(a).

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Suti, Jangipur Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Date: 909 AH (1503-04 CE).

Its records the construction of a mosque by the exalted Khan Muqarrab Khan, son of Chand Malik.

Reference: G.D. Sarkar, JASP, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, p.149, pl. IV; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 50, no. 87, S. Ahmad, IB, p. 162, fig. 40; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 157-58, pl. 42(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.83

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Cheraud, Sarandistrict, Bihar.

Thulth (but S. Ahmad says Naskh) character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.63m × 0.31m. Date: 909 AH (1503-04 CE).

It records the erection of a jami mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, PASB, 1870, pp.112-13; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 163-64;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 259-60, pl. 42(b). Inscription no. 1.1.84

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. Now it is lying in the Archaeological gallery of Indian, Museum, Calcutta.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.94m × 0.39m. Date: 909 AH (1503-04 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: R.D. Banerji, JBORS, vol. IV, 1918, pp.182-83; S. Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 2-3, pl. I(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 58, no. 86; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.

163-64, fig. 41; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 20 A 10, no. 19, pl. XIII; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 260-61, pl. 43(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.85

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Nahran, Saran, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt stone. Size: 0.61m × 0.50m. Date: 909 AH (1503-04 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: S.H. Askari, JBRS, vol. XLI, part-III, 1955, p.364; Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, p. 41, pl. XIV(a); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 108-09, pl. 21(b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 264-65, pl. 42(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.86

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Azimnagar, Dhaka.

Naskh character. Date: 910 AH (1504-05 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque in the reign of Husain Shah.


Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p.282; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 46, no. 77; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 167-68; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 67;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 267-68. Inscription no. 1.1.87

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Champatali, Dinajpur, Dhaka.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.97m × 0.43m. Date: 910 AH (1504-05 CE). It records the construction of a mosque by Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah.

Reference: A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, ASCB, 1998, p. 375, pl. IV; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 268-69, pl. 44(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.88

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From the Shrine of Shah Gada, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Date: 911 AH (1505 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by Sultan Husain Shah himself. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1873, p.294; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 78; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 82, pl. 52, no. 14; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p. 149; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 51-52, no. 90; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 168-69;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 67; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 269-70, pl. 45(a). Inscription no. 1.1.89

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Bandar, Narayanganj.

Naskh character. Date: 911 AH (1505 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by Haji Baba Salih in the reign of Sultan Husain Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p.283; S.A. Hasan, Antiquities of Dacca, p.56; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 52, no. 90; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 170-71;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 67; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 273-74. Inscription no. 1.1.90

Arabic mixed with Persian inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Tribeni, Hugli, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 1.46m × 0.890m. Date: The inscription bears no date, but fortunately Ruknud-Din Khan’s name is found in two other inscriptions, both of which bear dates and mention the name of Sultan ‘Alaud- Din Husayn Shah. So the inscription also almost certainly belongs to the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husian Shah.

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp..283-85, 289; R.D. Banerji, Ibid, vol. V, new series, 1909, pp. 250-52; T. Bloch, Ibid, pp. 260-61; G. Yazdani, EIM, 1915-16, pp. 10-14, pl. IV(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 53-54, no. 94; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 173-78, fig. 42; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 68;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 276-81, pl. 47.

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Ulipur, Kurigram, Bangladesh.

Naskh character. Black basalt, Size: 1.32m × 0.406m. Date: 22nd Jamadi I, 912 AH (10th October, 1506 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself.

Reference: A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, JVRM, vol. II, 1973, pp. 67-70, with a pl.; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 281-82, pl. 48(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.92

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Mahi- Santosh, Naogaon.

Naskh character. Black basalt, Size: 0.49m × 0.24m. Date: 9th Ramadan, 912 AH (23rd Janurary, 1507 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: ARVRS, 1927-28, pp. 1-2; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 179; A.B.M. Husain,

RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 68; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 282-83.

Inscription no. 1.1.93

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From English Bazar, Malda, West Bengal, India. Date: 913 AH (1507-08 CE). No other datail is available.

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: Ilahi Bakhsh, Khurshid Jahan Numa, in JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, p. 198; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 54, no. 96; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 180; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 69; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 283.

Inscription no. 1.1.94

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

The language is Arabic. No particulars about the script and style of writing are available. Date: 914 AH (1508 CE).

It records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: Blockmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 305; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 55, no. 98; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 181; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 69; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 284-85.

Inscription no. 1.1.95

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Chillakhana of Shaikh Nure Qutb ‘Alam, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal, India. The style of writing and the Size of stone slab are not available. Date: 915 AH (1509-10 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Ulugh Tahir Khan. Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 84; Ravenshaw, GRI, pl. 52, no. 15;

A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 114; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 55, no. 99; S. Ahmad,

IB, pp. 181-82; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 69; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 285.


Inscription no. 1.1.96

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Muhammadpur Nawada, near Bara, Patna, Bihar, India.

Basalt stone slab. Size: 0.97m × 0.43m. Date: 916 AH (1510-11 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself. Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.137, no. 145; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 186; A.A. Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, p. 42, pl. XV(a); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, p. 110, pl. 22(a); A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 70; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 191-92, pl. 50(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.97

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Machihata, Patna City, Bihar.

Thulth character. Black basalt. Size: 0.82m × 0.407m. Date: 916 AH (1510-11 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khan Nazir Khan.

Reference: S. Muhammad, JBRS, vol. XVI, 1930, parts III-IV, p. 340; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.138, no. 147; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 187; A.A. Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, pp. 42­ 43, pl. XIV(b); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 110-13, pl. 22(c); A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 70; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 292-93, pl. 51(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.98

A bilingual (Persian with a few words in Arabic) inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Kaitahar, Jaipurhat

Black basalt. Size: 0.610m × 0.30m. Date: 916 AH (1510-11 CE). It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, JVRS, vol. IV, 1975-76, pp. 64-69 with pl.;

A.K.M. Yaqub Ali, ASCB, 1200-1576 A.D., 1998, pp. 375-77, pl. XI; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 293-94, pl. 51(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.99

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Molnatali (Maulanatali), Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. No other detail is available. Date: 918 AH (1512-13 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1878, p. 305; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 86, pl. 54, no. 18; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 154 foot-note; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.58, no. 107; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 188-89; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 70; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 299-300, pl. 53(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.100

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From the Dargah of Maulana ‘Ata, Deokot, W. Dinajpur, W.Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 1.117m × 0.355m. Date: 918 AH (1512-13 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 106; G. Yazdani, EIM, 1929­

30, pp. 12-13; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.57, no. 105; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 189-92, fig.


15; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, pp. 70-71; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 300­

03, pl. 53(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.101

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Kalna, Burdwan, W.Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.65m × 0.21m. Date: 14th Ramadan, 918 AH (23rd November, 1512 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque by Majlis Jitwar, son of Taifur Khan, son of Haibat Khan.

Reference: M.F. Khan, EIAP, 1965, p. 26, pl. IX(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 303­ 04, pl. 85(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.102

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Sonargaon, Narayanganj.

Date: 2nd Rabi II, 919 AH (Ist June, 1513 CE). No other details are available. The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khawas Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 333-34; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.59, no. 109; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 192-93; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 71; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 304-06.

Inscription no. 1.1.103

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Baliaghata, Jangipur, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Only the date portion of the epigraph remains. Date: Rabi I, 921 AH (April-May, 1515 CE).

Most probable the epigraph records the construction of a mosque (S. Ahmad,

IB, p. 194.).

Reference: G.D. Sarkar, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, p. 149; S. Ahmad, IB,

p. 194; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 307. Inscription no. 1.1.104

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Dhamrai, Dhaka.

Date: 922 AH (1516-17 CE). No other details about the script, quality of writing etc. are available.

It records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 110; Bhattasali, Dacca Review, vol. 3, 1913-14, p. 294; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.60, no. 112; S. Ahmad, IB,

p. 195; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 71; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 307-08. Inscription no. 1.1.105

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Bholahat, Chapai-Nawabganj.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 923 AH (1517 CE).


The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Daulat Nazir.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 305-06; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 88, pl. 66, no. 20; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.61, no. 113; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 195-96;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 71; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 309, pl. 54(a). Inscription no. 1.1.106

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Gaur, Malda, West Bengal. Now preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.76m × 0.37m. Date: 925 AH (1519 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Sikandar Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XL, 1871, pp. 256-57, pl. V; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955-56, p. 22; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.61, no. 115; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 196­ 97; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 26, A, no. 25; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 71; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 310.

Inscription no. 1.1.107

Arabic (mexed with some Persian words) inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Goaldi mosque, Sonargaon, Narayanganj.

The actual finding spot, material, style of writing and other particulars are yet to be known. Date: 15th Sh’aban, 925 AH (1519 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 295; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 143; S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 50-51; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.60, no. 114;

S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 198-99; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 71; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 311.

Inscription no. 1.1.108

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Chhota Sona Masjid, Gaur, Nawabganj.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 2.75m × 0.508m. Date: The year of erection of the mosque broken off, but the name Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah is very clear. The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by W’ali Muhammad, son of Ali. Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 75-76; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 38­ 39; P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 285; Beveridge, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1895, pp. 224-25;

A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 79-80; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 61-62, no. 116;

S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 199-202; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 72; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 311-14.

Inscription no. 1.1.109

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Kantaduar, Pirganj, Rangpur.

Tughra character. Black basalt. Size: 0.406m × 0.203m. Date: Exact date is not mentioned, but the name of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din is clearly ascribed.

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khan A’zam. Reference: S. Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 4-5, pl. II(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 64­


65, no. 121; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 202-03, fig. 46; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 73; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 316-18, pl. 54(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.110

This is a fragmentary Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Mahdipur, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Basalt stone. Size: 0.431m × 0.178m. Date: Rabi II (the year is missing) but the name Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah is clear.

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by one Malik Yazid M’uazzam Zafar Khan.

Reference: P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 288; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 62, no. 117; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 205-06; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 74; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 319.

Inscription no. 1.1.111

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Pathantali, Chittagong City.

Tughra character. Sand stone slab. Size: 1.320m × 0.355m. Date: 921 AH (1515-16 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Majlis al-Majalis Majlis Khurshid.

Reference: A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 320-23, pl. 55(b). Inscription no. 1.1.112

Arabic inscription (fragmentary) of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Sadipur, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.915m × 0.431m. Date: The date and the name of Sultan and the object of construction all are missing. On the basis of style of writing Dr. M. Ishaque said that it was in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah.

The nature of sentence and the style of writing suggest that it may be a mosque (?) Reference: A.K. Bhattachary, JASB, Letters, vol. XVIII, 1952, no. 1, pp. 9-12; M. Ishaque, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 37-38, pl. X(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 323, pl. 55(c).

Inscription no. 1.1.113

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Shaikhpur Muhalla, Kharid (Sikandarpur, Azamgarh) U.P. India.

Naskh character. No other details are available. The date of the inscription is lost. The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Mansur.

Reference: W. H. Siddiqi, EIAP, 1961, pp. 45-46, pl. XVI(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 325-26, pl. 89(a).

16. Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah, 925-38 AH (1519-31-32 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.114

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Sadipur, Sonargaon, Narayanganj. It is now preservd in the National Museum, Dhaka.


Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 929 AH (1523 CE).

It records the construction of a mosque, along with a drinking house by Taqiud- Din, son of ‘Ainud-Din.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 337-38; A. Cunningham,

ASR, vol. XV, p. 144; S.A. Hasan, NAD, p. 49; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 67, no. 124;

S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 209-10; E. Haque, IAHB, fig. 91; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 328­ 330, pl. 56(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.115

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Ashrafpur, Narsingdi, Dhaka.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.89m × 0.59m. Date: 930 AH (1523-24 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. General Guide to the Dacca Museum, p. 43, pl. 26; A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 68, no. 128; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 330-331, pl. 57(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.116

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Molnatali (Maulanatali) Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Mesurement of the slab is not available. Date: 930 AH (1523-24 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khan Fath Khan. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 306-07; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 90, pl. 56, no. 21; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 68, no. 126; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 210­ 11; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 331-332, pl. 57(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.117

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Mangalkot, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Black basalt. No other detail is available. Date: 930 AH (1523-24 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by Mian Mu‘azzam. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 296; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 68, no. 125; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 211-12; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 332-333.

Inscription no. 1.1.118

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Bagha, Rajshahi.

Tughra character. Black basalt. Size: 0.622m × 0.140m. Date: 930 AH (1523­ 24 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: Abdul Wali, JASB, part. I, 1904, pp. 104-13; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 68, no. 127; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 212-14; A. Karim, JibS, vol. XIII, 1990, p. 35; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 333-35.

Inscription no. 1.1.119

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Bada Sona Masjid, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.


Tughra character. Black basalt. Size: 1.58m × 0.635m. Date: 932 AH (1525-26 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: A. Cunninham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 67; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 15; A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 47; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 69, no. 131; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.216-17; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 337-39.

Inscription no. 1.1.120

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Navagram, Pabna.

Tughra (of a low standard) character. Black basalt. Size: 0.59m × 0.26m. Date: 4th Rajab, 932 AH (21st April, 1526 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Ajyal Mina Jandar. Reference: S. Ahmad, EIM, 1937-38, pp. 37-38, pl. XII(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 69, no. 130; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 218-20, fig. 48; A. Karim, JASBD, vol. XVII, no. 2, August, 1972 with pl.; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 340-44, pl. 58(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.121

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Thulth (a fairly high-order) character. Black basalt. Size: 0.660m × 0.56m. Date: 933 AH (1526-27 CE)

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by Majlis Sa’ad. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 307; Z.A. Desai, EIAPS, 1955-56, p. 24, pl. VI(d); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 69, no. 132; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.

220-21; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 32; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 344-45, pl. 58(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.122

Arabic (mixed with stray Persian words) inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Sikandarpur, Azamgarh, U.P., India.

The style of writing is not knwon. Black basalt. Date: 27th Rajab, 933 AH (29th April, 1527 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by Khan Mukhtiyar Khan, the Sar-i-Lashkar, of the district of Kharid.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 296-97; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 70, no. 222; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 221-22; W.H. Siddiqi, EIAP, 1961, pp. 47-48, pl. XVI(b); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 245-46, pl. 89(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.123

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Deotala, Malda, West Bengal.

Stone slab. No other account of it is avilable. Date: 934 AH (1527-28 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by on Sher Malik.

Reference: A.A. Khan, & Stapleton, MGP, p. 171; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 70, no. 134; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 222-23; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 346-48.

Inscription no. 1.1.124

Two Arabic (interspersed with Persian phrases) inscriptions in the reign of


Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Satgaon, Hugli, West Bengal.

Both are Tughra characters. Both are carved on long basalt slab. Mesurments are

not available. Date: Both inscriptions record the same date i.e. Ramdan, 936 AH (May, 1529 CE).

Both the inscriptions record the construction of a jami mosque by Sayyid Jamalud-Din, son of Sayyid Fakhrud-Din (of Amul).

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 297-99; R.D. Banerji, BSPP, vol. 15, 1316 B.S., pp. 33-36; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 71-72, nos. 37-38; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 224-27; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 349-53.

Inscription no. 1.1.125

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Santoshpur, Hugli, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt. No other detail is available. Date: 938 AH (1530-31 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: A.K. Bhattacharya, EIAP, 1951-52, pp. 24-26, pl. 11(a); A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 73, no. 142; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 229-30; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 356-58,

pl. 60(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.126

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Chillakhana of Nur Qutb ‘Alam, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

The epigraph is fragmentary, portions in the middle and at the end being broken. The date is lost.

It records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 308-09; A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 74, no. 143; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 233; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 360.

Inscription no. 1.1.127

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Begusarai, Mungher, Bihar.

Black basalt. Size: 0.68m × 0.56m. Date: The date portion is lost. This three lines inscription records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: A.H. Ashkari, Current Studies, 1954, p. 20, note. 1; Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, pp. 43-44, pl. XV (b); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 115-16, pl. 23(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 360-61, pl. 61(b).

17. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Firuz Shah, 938-39 AH (1532-33 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.128

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Firuz Shah. From Kalna, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Naskh character (it represent a poor type of Tughra). Black basalt. Size: 0.889m

× 0.660m. Date: 1st Ramadan, 939 AH (28th March, 1533 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by Ulugh MasNAD Khas Malik.


Reference: H. Blochmann, PASB, 1872, p. 132; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 332; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 298, pl. VII, no. 2; A. Wali, BPP, vol. XIV, pp. 101-102; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 24-25, pl. VII(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 75, no. 144; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 234-35, fig. 49; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 34, pl. XVII; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 362-63, pl. 61(c).

18. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah, 939-44 AH (1533-38 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.129

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Jhanjaniya mosque, Sadullapur, Gaur, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 941 AH (1534-35 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 339-40; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 73; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 10, 94, pl. 58, no. 25; Beveridge, JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, p. 226; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 92-93; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 76, no. 146; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 237-38; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 265-67, pl. 62(b).

Inscription no. 1.1.130

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Jowar, Kishoreganj.

No details relating to the stone or the style of writing etc. are available. Date: Rabi I, 941 AH (September-October 1534 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque (it is disappeared long ago and no trace of it can be seen now).

Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 139, no. 150; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 239; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 367-68.

Inscription no. 1.1.131

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Hijli, Medinipur, West Bengal.

No details relating to the stone or the style of writing etc. are available. Date: 943 AH (1536-37 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Ikhtiyar Khan. Reference: Mahendra Karan, Hijlir Masnad-i-‘Ala, p. 221; S.C. Mira, Jashohar Khulnar Itihas, vol. II, pl. 286, plate facing, p. 257; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 277-78. Inscription no. 1.1.132

Arabic inscription (most probable) in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Hammd’s mosque at Masjidda, near Kumira, Chittagong.

Tughra character. Black basalt. Size: 0.711m × 0.660m. No other detail is available. (The miscreants have cruely disfigured the letters of the inscription. Only ‘al-dunya Wa’l Din Abul Muzaffar Mahmud, the Sultan son of Sultan’ can be read.

The epigraph did not mention the objects to which it was attached. Reference: A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 379-82, pl. 652(a).


Inscriptions of the Afghan Sultans

19. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Bahadur Shah Sur, 963-968 AH (1556-1560 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.133

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Bahadur Shah Sur. From Kusumba, Manda, Rajshahi.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.88m × 0.20m. Date: 966 AH (1558-59 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Sulaiman.

Reference: A. Wali, JASB, vol. LXXIII, 1904, pp. 108-17; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 242­ 44; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 393-94.

Inscription no. 1.1.134

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Bahadur Shah Sur. From Kumarpur, Rajshahi.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.89m × 0.223m. Date: 966 AH (1558-59 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque and a wall by Sulaiman.

Reference: Shaikh Sharafuddin, Monograph of the Varendra Research Society, no. 6, pp. 18-21, pl. III; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 244-45; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 394­ 95, pl. 66(a).

Inscription no. 1.1.135

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Bahadur Shah Sur. Exact finding spot is not known. Now it is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 1.04m × 0.508m. Date: 967 AH (1559-60 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Masnad-i-Ali Taj Khan, son of Jamal Karrani.

Reference: R.D. Banerji, JBORS, vol. IV, 1918, pp. 189-90; S. Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 7-9, pl. IV; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.245-47, fig. 50; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 37;

Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 375-77, pl. 74; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 395-97, pl. 66(b). Inscription no. 1.1.136

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Bahadur Shah Sur. From Kalna, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.59m × 0.407m. Date: 10th Dhi’l Hijja, 967 AH (1st September, 1560 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a jami mosque by Sarwar Khan. Reference: A. Wali, BPP, vol. XIV, p. 204, pl. 4; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 28-29, pl. VII(c); C. Dutt, IMC, p. 38, pl. XVIII; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 397-98,

pl. 67(a).

20. Sultan Ghiasthud-Din Jalal Shah, 968-70 AH (1560-63 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.137

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Jalal Shah. From Sherpur Murcha, Bogra.

Regarding the style of writing no information is available. Basalt stone. Size: 0.407m × 0.223m. Date: 960 AH (1552-53 CE).


The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol XLIL, 1875, pp. 298-300; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 248-49; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 398-99.


The House of the Karranis

21. Sultan Sulaiman Karrani, 972-80 AH (1564-72 CE)

Inscription no. 1.1.138

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Sulaiman Karrani. From Ilsha, Banshkhali, Chittagong.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.46m × 0.305m. Date: 9th Ramadan, 975 AH (9th March, 1568 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque.

Reference: A. Karim, JASP, vol. IX, no. 2, 1964, pp. 23-24, pl. 4(b); A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 403-04.

Inscription no. 1.1.139

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Sulaiman Karrani. From Rekabi Bazar, Munshiganj.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.458m × 0.39m. Date: 976 AH (1569 CE). The epigraph records the construction of a mosque along with other buildings (most probable Madrasa) by Abd Allah Mian, son of Amin Khan Faqir Mian. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, p. 303; S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 70-71; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 250-51; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 404-05.

Inscription no. 1.1.140

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Sulaiman Karrani. From Deotala, Malda, West Bengal.

No description of the stone slab is available. Date: 6th Dhi’l Hijja, 978 AH (1st May, 1571 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Mian Sulaiman, son of Mian (?).

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 297; A.A. Khan & Stapleton,

MGP, p. 170; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 252-53; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 408-09.


Inscriptions of the Independent and Semi-Independent Chiefs of Bengal

22. Masum Khan

Inscription no. 1.1.141

Persian mixed with Arabic inscription of the reign of al- Mu’azzam Abu’l Fath Masum Khan. From Chatmohar, Pabna. Now it is preserved in the Varendra Research Museum, Rajshahi.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 989 AH (1581 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a mosque by Khan Muhammad, son of Tuwi Khan Qaqshal.


Reference: H. Blochmann, Ain-i-Akbari, vol. I, p. 688; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 259­ 60, fig. 54; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 413-14, pl. 68(b).

23. Nawab Mirza Murad Khan

Inscription nos. 1.1.142

Two Persian inscriptions of the time of Nawab Mirza Murad Khan. From Sherpur Murcha, Bogra.

Naskh (a tendency to Shikasta) character. Black basalt. Size: one is 1.5m × 0.69m and the other is 1m × 0.660m. Date: The first slab containing the date 25th Dhi;l Hijja, 989 AH (20th January, 1582 CE) and the second does not bear the date or the name of the builder.

The first inscription records the construction of a mosque with the aid of Nawab Mirza Murad Khan.

Reference: P. Horn, EI, vol. II, pp. 288-90; S. Ahmad, EIM, 1937-38, pp. 17-22; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 261-66, figs. 52,53; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 414-19, pls. 69 & 70.

Inscription nos. 1.1.143

Three inscriptions (Ist inscription Arabic, second inscription in Persian and the third one is in Arabic) were found in the Qutb Shahi mosque at Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

i) The first one is Naskh with Tughra flourish character. It records the construction of a mosque in 990 AH (1582-83 CE).

ii) The second one is on the pulpit. It records the foundation of mosque adoraned by Makhdum in 993 AH (1585 CE).

iii) The third inscription was found on the entrance gateway of the mosque. It records the completion of the gate of the mosque in 993 AH (1585 CE).

Thus, it is clear that the construction of mosque was started in 990 AH (1582-83 CE) and was completed in 993 AH (1585 CE).

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 86-88; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 56; Beveridge, JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 209-10; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 120-24; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 266-68 A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 419-21.

Inscription no. 1.1.144

A Persian inscription was found over the gateway of a mosque (Jami mosque), Old Malda, West Bengal.

No other details are available.

It records the constuction of a mosque by M’asum in 993 AH (1585 CE); But the chronogram gives the date 1004 AH (1595-96 CE).

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 77; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 44; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 157; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 258-59; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 422-23.

1.2 Madrasas

1. Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us, 690-701 AH (1291-1301 CE)

Inscription no.1.2.1


Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us. From Zafar Khan’s mosque, Tribeni, Hugli, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone slab. Size: The inscription is divided into four parts viz, (a) 0.342m × 0.190m, (b) 2.032m × 0.330m, (c) 1.663m × 0.14m and (d) 1.663m × 0.14m Date: 698 AH (1298 CE).

It records the construction of a madrasa or school by (Zafar Khan?)

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 285-86. Yazdani, EIM, 1917-18, pp. 13-15, pl. II; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.6, no. 7; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 18­

21, fig. 7; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 53-56.

2. Sultan Shamsud-Din Firuz Shah, 701-22 AH (1301-22 CE)

Inscription no.1.2.2

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Shamasud-Din Firuz Shah. From Zafar Khan’s tomb, Tribeni, Hugli, West Bengal.

The style of writing is a combination of Naskh and Tughra. Black basalt stone. Size: Two slabs– each measuring 1.90m × 0.254m Date: 1st Muharram 713 AH (28th April 1313 CE).

It records the construction of a madrasa by Zafar Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 287-88; R.D. Banerji, Banglya Sahitya Parishad Patrika, vol. XV, pp. 24-25; Yazdani, EIM, 1917-18, pp. 33-34, pl. XII(a), A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 8-9, no, 11; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 28­ 29, fig. 10; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 62-64.

3. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no. 1.2.3

Arabic insacription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah of Bengal. From Gaur, West Bengal.

Naskh and Tughra flourish characters. Black basalt. Date: 1st Ramadan, 907 AH (8th March, 1502 CE)

The epigraph records the construction of a madrasa by the order of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 303; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 80, pl. 51, no. 2; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 49, no. 83; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 158-59;

A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 65; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 152-54. Inscription no. 1.2.4

Arabic insacription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah of Bengal. From Darasbari Madrasa, Firuzpur, Gaur, Nawabganj.

Thulth or Thuluth style of writing with Tughra characters. Black basalt. Date: 909 AH (1503-04 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a pictureque and magnificent madrasa. Reference: JASBD, vol. XXIV-XXVI, 1879-81, pp. 20-90, pl. XXIII; A.K.M.

Zakariah, BPS, pp. 285-86; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 261-64, pl. 43(b).


1.3 Khanqah/Musafirkhna/Chilla Khana

1. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Iwad Khalji, 610-24 AH (1213-27 CE)

Inscription no.1.3.1

Arabic Insicription of the rule of (governorship) Sultan Ghathud-Din Iwad Khilji. From Birbhum, West Bengal.

A mixture of Naskh and Riqa styles. Date: 7th Jumada II, 618 AH (29th July, 1221 CE).

It records the construction (or made endowment for khanqah for ahl-al Suffa) of khanqah. The name of the builder/or who made the endowment has been lost but his father’s name Muhammad al Maraghi is preserved.

Reference: ARIE, 1972-73, no. I, p. 20. A Review, New Delhi, 1978, p. 52; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1975, pp. 6-12. pl. I(b). Sukhamaya Mukhapadhaya, Banglai Muslim Adhikarer Adiparava, Calcutta, 1988, pp. 40-44, pl. 2-3; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 17-22.

2. Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah, 896-99 AH (1490-93 CE)

Inscription no.1.3.2

Arabic Insicription of the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muzaffar Shah. From Chhota Dargah, Hadrat Pandua, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Fine Naskh character. Black basalt. Date: 17th Ramadan, 898 AH (2nd July, 1493 CE).

It records the construction of a building called ‘Al-Bait-us-Suffah’ (the house of the pious). But Cunningham identified it as a mosque; while Stapleton called it the chilla khana of Nur-Qutbul-‘Alam.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 290-91, pl. VI, no. 2; A.Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 84; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 77, pl. 49, no. 9; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 114-15; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 44, no. 22; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 145-47, fig. 35; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 230-32, pl. 34(a).

3. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no.1.3.3

An Arabic mixed with Persian insicription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Sylhet (exact locality has not been mentioned).

Naskh character. Date: 911 AH (1505 CE).

It records the construction of a sacred building by Khalis Khan (it may be a house of meditation for Sufis or a musafirkhana or saraikhana for their residence).

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 293-94; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 52, no. 92; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 169-70; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 270-73.


1.4 Tombs

1. Muhammad Arshalan Tatar Khan, 659-65 AH (1260-66-67 CE)

Inscription no.1.4.1

Arabic inscription during the governorship of Muhammad Arshalan Tatar Khan of Bengal. From Barahdari Muhalla, Bihar, India.


Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 1.50m × 0.255m. Date: 18th Jamadi I, 663 AH (8th March, 1265 CE).

It records the construction of a tomb over the remains of one Sultan Shah by Tartar Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, p. 247; A. Yazdani, EIM, 1913-14, p. 247; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 3, no. 3; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 9-10, fig. 2; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, p. 6-9, pl. 2; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 36-38.

2. Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us, 690-701 AH (1291-1301 CE)

Inscription no.1.4.2

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us. From Mahasthangarh, Bogra, Bangladesh.

Naskh character of crude type. Black basalt flint. Size: 0.431m × 1.63m. Date: Shawwal, 700 AH (June, 1301 CE).

It records the construction of a holy shrine (most probable the shrine of Shah Sultan Mahisawar) by Mir Namwar (?) Khan.

Reference: R.D. Banerji, JBORS, vol. IV, 1918, pp. 178-79; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 6, no. 8; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 21-23; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 56-58, pl. 5.

3. Sultan Sikandar Shah, 759-92 AH (1358-89 CE)

Inscription no.1.4.3

The inscription is in Persian verse mixed with Arabic of the reign Sultan Sikandar Shah. From the Dargah of Maulana ‘Ata, Deokot, W. Dinajpur, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.585m × 0.305m. Date: 765 AH (1363 CE). It records the construction of a dome (on the tomb of Maulana ‘Ata) in the reign of Sultan Sikandar Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, Eastern India, vol. II, p. 661; H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 102-07; Yazdani, EIM, 1929-30, pp. 9-11, pl. VI(a); A.H.

Dani, BMIB, pp. 11-12, no. 4; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 34-35, fig. 13; A. Karim,

CAPIB, pp. 82-84, pl. 8(a).

4. Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah, 839-64 AH (1436-59 CE)

Inscription no. 1.4.4

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From the Dargah of Shaikh Nur Qutb ‘Alam, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh character. Date: 863 AH (1458-59 CE).

It records the construction of a tomb of an unknown saint.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 271-72, pl. V, no. 4; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 83; Revenshaw, GRI, p. 52, pl. 46, no.4; A.A.Khan and Stapleton, MGP, pp. 115-16, pl. VI, no. 2; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 17-18, no. 26; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 60-62, fig. 20; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 141-44, pl. 17(a).


5. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no. 1.4.5

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husain Shah. From Baba Salih’s Tomb, Bandar, Narayanganj (the slab is now preserved in the National Museum, Dhaka).

Naskh character. Date: 912 AH (1506-07 CE).

It records the construction of the tomb Haji Baba Salih.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 283-84; S.A. Hasan, NAD, pp. 56-57; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 54, no. 95; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 172-73; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 68; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 274-75.

6. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah, 939-944 AH (1533-1538 CE)

Inscription no.1.4.6

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Purnea, Bihar, India.

Basalt stone. Size: 0.56m × 0.31m. No other detail is available. Date: 4th Dhi’l Q’ada, 943 AH (15th April, 1537 CE).

It records the construction of a mausoleum by the order of Balyan (?) Shah. Reference: Q. Ahmad, EIAP, 1968, pp. 14-16, pl. II(b); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 116-18, pl. 23(b); A. Karim,CAPIB, pp. 376-77, pl. 64(a).

7. (Sultan) Sulaiman Karrani, 977-80 AH (1569-72 CE)

Inscription no. 1.4.7

Persian inscription (along with throne verse of the Quran, Surah 2, verse 255 & verse, 137) of the reign of (Sultan) Sulaiman Karrani. From Biharsharif, Bihar, India. Basalt stone. Size 1.20m × 0.24m. No other detail is available. Date: 977 AH (1569-70 CE).

It records the construction of a tomb (according to S. Ahmad) but A. Karim says, it records the erection of a gateway.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, pp. 304-05; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 251-52; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 152-55, pl. 29(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 405-08,

pl. 68(a).


2. Section B: Secular Buildings

2.1 Forts

1. Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us, 690-701 AH (1291-1301 CE)

Inscription no.2.1.1

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Kaika’us. From Mahesavara, Munghyr, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Size: 1.930m × 0.407m. Date: Muharram, 692 AH (1292-93 CE). It records the construction of a strong fort in the reing of Ruknud-Din Kaika’us by his governor Firuz Aitgin.


Reference: R.K. Chowdhury, Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, vol. XXXVI, 1955, pp. 163-65; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 4, no.4; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 11-12, fig.4; A.A. Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, pp. 35-36, pl. XI(a); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 9-10, pl. 3(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 43-45.


2.2 Bridges

1. Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah, 839-64 AH (1436-1459 CE)

Inscription no. 2.2.1

Arabic inscription of the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

The style of writing is yet to be procured. Sand stone slab; Size: 0.482m × 0.356m; Date: 5th Safar, 854 AH (20th March, 1450 CE).

It records the construction of a bridge.

Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 135-36, no. 140; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 52-53;

A.A. Kadiri, EIAP, 1961, pp. 36-37, pl. XII(a); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 96-98, pl. 18(b-c); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 123-24.

Inscription no. 2.2.2

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Size: 0.458 × 0.330m. Date: 5th Safar, 862 AH (23rd December, 1457 CE). It records the construction of a bridge.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIV, 1875, p. 289; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 75; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 17, no. 25; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 59­ 60; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 133-34.

2. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no. 2.2.3

Arabic mixed with Persian inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Tribeni, Hugli, West Bengal, India.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.915m × 0.50m. Date: 912 AH (1506-07 CE). It records the construction of a bridge by Ulugh Khan in the reign of Sultan Husain Shah.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XXXIX, 1870, pp. 283-85,89; R.D. Banerji, Ibid, vol.V, new series, 1909, pp. 250-52; T. Bloch, Ibid, pp. 260-61; G.Yazdani, EIM, 1915-16, pp. 10-14, pl. IV(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 53-54, no. 93; S. Ahmad, IB, pp.173-78, fig. 42 & 43; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 68; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp.276-81, pl. 46.

Inscription no. 2.2.4

A Persian inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Jahanabad, Godagari, Nawabganj.

Details about the epigraph are not on record.

It records the construction of a bridge in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah.


Reference A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 65-66, 124, no. 122; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 319-20.

3. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah, 939-944 AH (1533-1538 CE)

Inscription no. 2.2.5

Sanskrit inscription in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah of Bengal. From Dhorail, Naogaon.

Sand stone. Size: 1m × 0.40m × 0.12m. The language is Sanskrit and the script is Bengali. It is the only Sanskrit inscription of the Sultans of Bengal discovered so far. Date: Saka year 1455 (1533 CE).

It records the construction of a bridge by Farash Khan, son of Nribaraja Khan. Reference: N.B. Sanyal, IHQ, vol. VII, 1931, pp. 17-18; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 76, no. 145; M.E. Huq, Muslim Bangala Sahitya, 1st ed., Dhaka, 1957, p. 39, pl. following p. 96; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 236-37; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 364-65, pl. 62(a).


2.3 Gateways

1. Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah, 839-64 AH (1436-59 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.1

Arabic inscription in the reign of Nasirud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Naswalagali, Dhaka.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Size: 1.50m × 0.337m. Inscripbed surfac 1.38m × 0.30m. Date: 20th Sha’ban, 863 AH (25th June, 1459 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway of a mosque.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, Vol. XLI, 1872, p. 107; S.M. Hasan, GMAA, p. 34; Stapleton, JASB, new series, vol. VI, 1910 A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 18-19, no. 27; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 52-64; A. Karim, JASP, vol. XII, no. II, 1967, pp. 292-96;

A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 134-37.

2. Sultan Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah, 861-79 AH (1459-74 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.2

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah. From Firuzpur, Gaur, Chapar-Nawabganj.

The styly of writing is Naskh resembling Tughra. Date: 1st Dhi’l hijja, 870 AH (19th July, 1466 CE)

It records the construction of a gate of a certain mosque by Khan Jahan. Reference: Ravenshaw, GRI, 1878, p.36; P. Horn, EI, vol. II, p. 286; Beveridge, JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, p. 224; A.A. Khan Stapleton, MGP, p. 83; Y.A. Bukhari, EIAP, 1955 and 1956, pp. 35-36, pl. IX(c); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 26, no. 38; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 81; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 162-64.

Inscription no. 2.3.3

Arabic inscription (a few words of Persian can be see in the line 16 & 17) of


the reign of Sultan Ruknud-Din Barbak Shah of Bengal. From Gaur, Malda West Bengal.

The epigraph is in Arabic mixed with Persian. It consists of 15 couplets in Arabic and two lines in Persian prose. Date: 871 AH (1466 CE).

It records the construction of a watercourse and gateway.

Reference: A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 53; Ravenshaw, GRI, 1878, pp. 18.19; A.A. Khan Stapleton, MGP, pp. 56-57; Ars Islamica, 1940, vol. VII, part- II, pp. 141-47; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 26-27, no. 40; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 86-87; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 165-68.

3. Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah II, 893-96 AH (1487-90 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.4

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Saifud-Din Firuz Shah. From Garh Jaripa, Sherpur, Mymenshigh.

Naskh character. Granite stone. Size: 1.22m × 0.61m. Date: 4th Muharram, 893 AH (20th December, 1487 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway of a Fort.

Reference: H. Blockmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 300; Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955 and 1956, pp. 17-19, pl. V(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 39, no. 65; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 134-37; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 220-22, pl. 31(b).

4. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.5

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. The place of it’s collection is not property recorded.

Thulth and Tughra character. Date: 10th Dhil Hijja, 906 AH (27th June, 1501 CE). It records the erection of a gateway of a mosque by Khan Mu’azzam Jitwar Khan.

Reference: M.F. Khan, EIAP, 1965, p. 25, pl. IX(c); A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 250, pl. 84(a).

Inscription no. 2.3.6

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Qadam Rasul Building, Gaur, West Bengal, India.

The style of writing is not available. Date: 22nd Muharram, 909 AH (17th July, 1503 CE).

It records the construction of a gate but there is no mention of the nature of the building to which the gate was built.

Reference: E.G. Glazier, Report on the district of Rangpur, Calcutta, 1873, p.

108; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 23; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p. 63; A.H. Dani,

BMIB, p. 50, no. 85; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 163; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970,

p. 66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 258-59. Inscription no. 2.3.7

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From


Gilabari, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone. Date: 910 AH (1504-05 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway but it did not mention the nature of the building to which the gate was built.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 304; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 80-81; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 51, no. 88; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 165-66; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 265-66, pl. 44(a).

Inscription no. 2.3.8

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From near the tomb of Shaikh Akhi Siraj, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Tughra character. No other detail is available. Date: 910 AH (1504-05 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway but it did not mention the nature of the building to which it was built.

Reference: Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 8; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 166; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 266. Inscription no. 2.3.9

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Jhilli, Murshidabad, West Bengal.

Excellent Naskh with Tughra character. Basalt stone. Size: 0.915m × 0.304m. Date: 912 AH (1505-06 CE).

It records the construction of a gate of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself. Reference: A. Ghosh, BSPP, 1337, B.S., p. 81, with a pl.; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 171­ 72; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 274-75, pl. 45(b).

Inscription no. 2.3.10

Two Arabic inscriptions in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From the Dargah of Shaikh Akhi Siraj, Sadullahpur, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal. Date: Both the inscriptions bear same date i.e. 916 AH (1510-11 CE). These two inscriptions record the construction of two gateways to the tomb of Shaikh Akhi Sirajud-Din Uthman.

It records the construction of a gate of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself. Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLII, 1873, pp. 70-72; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, pp. 70-72; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 84-86, pls. 53-54, nos. 16-17;

A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, pp. 90-91; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 56, nos. 103­ 04; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 182-84; A.B.M. Husain, RUS, vol. III, 1970, p. 69; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 285-88, pls. 49(a) & 48(b).

Inscription no. 2.3.11

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Black basalt. Size: 0.711m × 0.445m. Date: 917 AH (1511-12 CE).

The epigraph records the construction of a gateway of a jami mosque by the Sultan himself.

Reference: Q. Ahmad, EIAP, 1968, pp. 13-14, pl. III(a); Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 113-114, pl. 20(d); A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 295, pl. 51(c).


Inscription no. 2.3.12

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Firuzpur, Gaur, Nawabganj.

Naskh character. Date: 918 AH (1512-13 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway of a Fort.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, Vol. XVII, 1873, p. 295; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XL, p. 52; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 88, pl. 53, no. 19; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, pp. 66-67; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 58, no. 106; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 187-88; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 298-99, pl. 52(b).

Inscription no. 2.3.13

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Chhota Sona Masjid, Firuzpur, Gaur, Nawabganj. Now it is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 2.60m × 0.20m. Date: 27th Ramadan (year is gone), but the name Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah is clear.

It records the erection of a gateway to a jami mosque by Majlis Mansur. Reference: S. Ahmad, EIM, 1933-34, pp. 5-6, pl. III(a); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 63, no. 119; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 203-04; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 29, A no. 27; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 314-16, pl. 55(a).

5. Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah, 925-38 AH (1519-31-32 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.14

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Dakhil Darwaza, Gaur, West Bengal, India. Now it is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.914m × 0.458m. Date: 926 AH (1519-20 CE). It records the erection of a gateway by the Sultan himself.

Reference: G. Yazdani, EIM, 1911-12, pp. 5-7, pl. XXXI; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 51-52; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 67, no. 123; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 207-09, fig. 47; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 30; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 327-28, pl. 56(a).

Inscription no. 2.3.15

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From the gateway of the mausoleum of Shaikh Akhi Sirajud-Din Uthman, Sadullapur, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal.

Date: 931 AH (1524-25 CE). No other detail is available. It records the erection of a gate.

Reference: A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, p. 91; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 69, no. 129; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 215-16; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 336-37.

Inscription no. 2.3.16

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah (the text of the inscription is not available). From Piranpur, Malda, West Bengal.

Date: 931 AH (1524-25 CE). No other detail is available.


It records the erection of a gateway by the Sultan himself.

Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 139, no. 149; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 337. Inscription no. 2.3.17

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Para Shah Mundai, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Basalt stone but the Size of the slab is not recorded. Date: 935 AH (1528-29 CE).

This two lines inscription records the construction of a gateway to a mosque by Khalaf Khan.

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, pp. 307-08; Ravenshaw, GRI,

p. 90, pl. 56, no. 22; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp.155-56; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p.71, no. 135; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 223-24; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 348-49, pl. 59(a).

Inscription no. 2.3.18

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Murshidabad city, West Bengal.

No details relating to the stone or the style of writing and the date etc. are available. Date: 936 AH (1529-30 CE).

The epigraphs records the construction of a gate.

Reference G.D. Sarkar, JASB, vol. XIII, new series, 1917, p. 151; A. Wali, Ibid, vol. XX, new series, 1924, p. 518; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 71, no. 136; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 227-28; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 353-54.

Inscription no. 2.3.19

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Chhota Sona Masjid, Firuzpur, Gaur, Nawabganj. Now it is preserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, bearing A. no. 13620.

Naskh with Tughra character. Black basalt. Size: 0.736m × 0.304m. Date: 938 AH (1531-32 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway to the mosque by Majlis Jitwar. Reference: A.K Bhattacharya, EIAP, 1951-52, pp. 26-27, pl. XI(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 73, no. 141; S. Ahmad, IB, p. 231; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 33; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 357-59, pl. 60(b).

6. Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah, 939-44 AH (1533-38 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.20

Arabic inscription (on Terracotta plaques) in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah; (but cunningham and S. Ahmad said that it was in the reign of Ghiyathud-Din ‘Azam Shah). Now it is peserved in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. Naskh character. Terracotta plaques. Date: According to S. Ahmad, in the reing of Ghiyathud-Din A‘zam Shah, but A. Karim, said it is 943 AH (1536-37 CE) in the reign of Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah.

It records the construction of a gateway to the tomb of Akhi Sirajud-Din.


Reference: A Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 72; A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP,

p. 92, note 1; R.D. Banerji, JBORS, vol. IV, pp. 26-28, pl. VII(b), Z.A. Desai, EIAP, 1955-56, pp. 26-28, pl. VII(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 77, no. 148; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 41-42, fig. 15; C. Dutt, IMC, p. 35; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 373­ 76, pl. 63(b).

Inscription no. 2.3.21

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Ghiathud-Din Mahmud Shah. From Shahpur, Malda, West Bengal.

Naskh with Tughra flourish character. Black basalt. Size: 0.685m × 0.280m. Date: 943 AH (1536-37 CE).

It records the construction of a gateway to a Fort.

Reference: Beveridge on the basis of Ilahi Bakhsh’s Khurshid Jahan Numa in JASB, vol. LXIV, 1895, pp. 214-15; N.B. Roy, JASB, vol XVIII, no. 3, 1951, pp. 217-18; M. Ishaq, EIAPS, 1955-56, pp. 37-42, pl. X(b); A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 77,

no. 147; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 239-40; A. Karim, JASBD, vol XXX, no. 2, December, 1985, pp. 1-8 with pl.; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 368-73, pl. 63(a).

7. (Sultan) Sulaiman Karrani, 972-80 AH (1564-72 CE)

Inscription no. 2.3.22

Arabic mixed Persian (initial portion Throne verse of the Quran and the remaining portion in Persian) inscription in the reign of (Sultan) Sulaiman Karrani. From the tomb of Shaikh ‘Alaul Huq, Pandua, Malda, West Bengal.

No other detail is available. Date: 3rd Rajab, 980 AH(?) (10th November, 1572 CE). It records the construction of a gateway.

Reference: A. A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 109-10; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 253­ 55; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 409-11.


2.4 Miscellaneous Construction

1. Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah, 899-925 AH (1493-1519 CE)

Inscription no.2.4.1

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Munghyr, Bihar, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. Size: 0.762m × 0.255m. Date: 903 AH (1497-98 CE). It records the construction of a dome by Danyal.

Reference: H. Blockmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, pp. 334-336; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 47, no. 78; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 153-54; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 99-102, pl. 19(c); Quraishi, LAM, pp. 213-15; Kadiri, EIAPS, 1961, pp. 28-39, pl. XII(b), A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 242-43, pl. 37(b).

Inscription no.2.4.2

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan ‘Alaud-Din Husayn Shah. From Haidarpur mosque, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Stone slab. Date: 910 AH (1504-05 CE).


The epigraph records the construction of a siqaya or drinking Shed.

Reference: A.A. Khan & Stapleton, MGP, pp. 158-59; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 51, no. 89; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 166-67; A. Karim, CAPIB, p. 267.

2. Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah, 925-38 AH (1519-31-32 CE)

Inscription no.2.4.3

Arabic mixed with Persian inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Bandel, Hugli, West Bengal, India. Date: 930 AH (2nd September 1523-24 CE). No other detail is available.

It records the construction of a well attached to a mosque by Malik Anwar Khan. Reference: A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 138, no. 148; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 214-15; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 235-36.

Inscription no.2.4.4

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From the Shrine of Qadam Rasul, Gaur, Malda, West Bengal, India.

Tughra character. Basalt stone. No other detail is available. Date: 937 AH (1530-31 CE).

It records the construction of a dais (raised platform).

Reference: H. Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLI, 1872, p. 338; A. Cunningham, ASR, vol. XV, p. 55; Ravenshaw, GRI, pp. 20, 92, pl. 57, no. 23; P. Horn, EI, vol. II,

p. 286; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, pp. 61-63; A.H. Dani, BMIB, p. 139, no. 148; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 228-29; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 254-56, pl. 59(b). Inscription no.2.4.5

Arabic inscription in the reign of Sultan Nasirud-Din Nusrat Shah. From Chalispara, Old Malda, West Bengal, India.

Naskh character. Black basalt. No other information is available. Date: 938 AH (1531-32 CE).

This two lines inscription records the construction of a shed for drinking water by Bua Malati.

Reference: H.Blochmann, JASB, vol. XLIII, 1874, p. 308; Ravenshaw, GRI, p. 94, pl. 58, no. 24; A.A. Khan and Stapleton, MGP, p.153; A.H. Dani, BMIB, pp. 72­ 73, no. 140; S. Ahmad, IB, pp. 231-32; A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 359-60, pl. 61(a).

3. Sultan Shamsud-Din Muhammad Shah Ghazi, 961-63 AH (1553-55 CE)

Inscription no.2.4.6

Arabic inscription (badly damaged) in the reign of Sultan Shamsud-Din Muhammad Shah Sur. From Biharshrif, Bihar, India.

Basalt stone. Size: 0.304m × 0.255m. Date: 962 AH (1554-55 CE). It records the construction of a dome.

Reference: A.H. Ashari, Current Studies, 1954, p. 22; Q. Ahmad, CAPIB, pp. 446-48, pl. 30(a); A. Karim, CAPIB, pp. 388-90, pl. 49(c).



[[ Other sections:  || Archaeology|| Architecture||  Arts and Crafts||  Cultural history||  || Folklore||  || Indigenous||  || Language & Literature||  || Living traditions||  || State & Culture  ]]