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4.1 Inscriptional Evidence

Secular Buildings/Establishments

1. The city of Pundranagara and it’s granary (kothagara).

Mahasthan Fragmentary stone plaque inscription, (3rd century BCE). Mahasthan, Bogra, Bangladesh.

Prakrit, Brahmi.

Reference: E.I, XXI, p. 83; Select Inscriptions, p. 82; Mukherji and Maity, pp. 39-40.

2. The district town Panchanagari and homestead land, used as dwelling site and garden.

Baigram copper-plate inscription of the Gupta year 128 (448 CE). Baigram, Bogra District, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: E.I., XXI, p.78; Select inscriptions, p. 342; Mukherji and Maity, pp. 49-53.

3. A resting shed, gardens and dwelling sites.

Paharpur copper-plate inscription of the Gupta year 155 (479 CE). Paharpur, Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 37; E.I., XX, p. 59; D.C. Sircar, p. 346.

4. Shipbuilding harbour (navata kse nau). Land endowed in the district of Varakamandala.

Faridpur copper-plate inscription of Dharmaditya (Regnal year 3). Faridpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Select inscriptions, p. 350; Mukherji and Maity, pp. 76, 77.

5. Woolproducing centres, stables and rest houses.

Mallasarul copper-plate inscription of Vijayasena of the times of Gopacandra (Regnal year 3). Mallasarul, Burdwan, West Bengal.

Sanskrit.

Reference: E.I., XXIII, p. 159; Select inscriptions, p. 359; R.K. Mukherji and Maity, p. 91.

6. A tank (puskarini)

Gunaighar copper-plate inscription of Vainyagupta (Gupta year 188, 507 CE). Gunaighar. Comilla District.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 67, 69.

7. Bullock-cart track, lake and post fasten boats. Land endowed in Varakamandala region. Faridpur copper-plate inscription of the time of Dharmaditya (c. 540-560 CE). Faridpur District.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 80, 82.


8. The victory camp of Devaparvata encircled by the river Ksiroda where was situated Balabhatta’s palace Katakasila.

Prince Balabhatta of (late 7th century CE) Khadga dynasty’s copper-plate inscription. Salvan Vihara, Mainamati.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 39; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 213; Bangladesh Archaeology, No. 1 (1979), pp. 141, 142, 143.

9. Jaya-karmantavasaka, the jayaskandavara of Devakhadga.

The first Ashrafpur copper-plate inscription of Deva Khadga (c. 665 CE), Ashrafpur, Narsingdi District.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 36; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 210.

10. Jaya-Karmantavasaka, the Jayaskandavara of Devakhadga.

The second Ashrafpur copper-plate inscription of Devakhadga (c. 665 CE). Ashrafpur, Narsingdi.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 37; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 211.

11. Jayaskandavara Devaparvata and it’s description. This description seems to be that of the fortified area of the city: it has gates on the east, west, north and south. Probably because it had four gates it has been called sarvatobhadraka in the Kailan plate. The river Ksiroda encircled it like a moat and in the water of the river elephants played. it’s two banks were embellished with naval vessels.

The Kailan copper-plate of Sridharana Rata (latter half of the 7th century CE). Kailan, Comilla District.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 44; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 215; A.M. Choudhury, ‘Devaparvata’, Itihasa, 3rd year, No. 3, 1376, p. 220; D.C. Sarkar, Silalekha Tamrasasanadir Prasanga, p 68.

12. The victory camp situated in Devaparvata, on the bank of the river Ksiroda. Ananda Vihara copper-plate of Bhavadeva (8th century). Most probably Ananda Vihara, Mainamati, Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, pp. 220-221; Hakim Habibur Rahman Khan commemoration volume, pp. 212-213; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Letters, XVII, No. 2, pp. 82.

13. Market places in rural areas and embankment and Punyarama lake.

Khalimpur copper-plate inscription of Dharmapala (32nd regnal year, c. 802 CE). Khalimpur, District Malda, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 107, 108; E.I., IV, p. 243.


14. The victory camp situated in Kuddalkhataka.

Jagajjibanpur copper-plate inscription of Mahendrapala (c. 861-866 CE). Jagajjibanpur, District Malda, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: (Itihasa, Trayovimsa Varsa, Ist to 3rd issue, 1396, p. 13; Pratna Samiksa, Volumes 2 & 3, 1993-1994, p. 230).

15. The city of Devaparvata and it’s connexion with river Ksiroda. Also the victory camp situated at Vikramapura with Indrasvaranaubandha (naval anchorage or naval base at Indrasvara).

Paschimbag copper-plate inscription of Sricandra (c. 925-75 CE). Paschimbag, Maulvi Bazar District, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abdul Momin Chowdhury, ‘Devaparvata’, Itihasa, op. cit. pp. 220ff; Kamalakanta Gupta, pp. 97, 99; Nalinikanta Commemoration Volume, pp. 173, 175.

16. The illustrious ‘camp of victory’ situated at Vikramapura.

Rampal copper plate inscription of Sricandra (c. 929-975 CE). Rampal, District Munshiganj, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, P. 228; N.G. Majumdar, p. 8.

17. The illustrious ‘camp of victory’ situated at Vikramapura.

Kedarpur copper-plate inscription of Sricandra (c. 929-975 CE). Kedarpur, District Faridpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 232; N.G. Majumdar, p. 8.

18. Sripattikaraka. The illustrious ‘camp of victory’ situated at Vikramapur. Referes to a tank and the market (hattika) of Dhritipura.

Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Ladahacandra Deva (no. 1) (c. 1000-1020 CE). Charpatra Mura, Mainamati, District Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Pakistan Archaeology, No. 3, 1966, pp. 40, 41, 44, 45.

19. The illustrious ‘camp of victory’ situated at Vikramapura and Sri Pattikaraka. Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Ladahacandra Deva, No. 2 (c. 1000-1020 CE). Charpatra Mura, Mainamati, District Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Pakistan Archaeology, No. 3, 1966, pp. 48, 49.

20. The Kalyanacandra’s city together with harem.

Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Govindacandra (c. 1020-1045 CE). Charpatra Mura, Mainamati, District Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Pakistan Archaeology, No. 3, 1966, p. 55.


21. The cattlestations, markets and bathing places.

Ramganj copper-plate inscription of Isvaraghosa (c. 11th century CE). Ramganj, District Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: R.K. Mukherji and Maity, pp. 363, 367; N.G. Majumdar, pp. 154, 156.

22. According to Mukherji and Maity verse 30 of this inscription refers to towns packed up with citizens. N.G. Majumdar translates the reference ‘palaces packed up with citizens’.

Deopara inscription of Vijayasena (c. 1097-1160 CE). Deopara, District Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 257; N.G. Majumdar, p. 56.

23. The victory camp situated in Vikramapura. Also refers to dwelling places, canals and cart tracks or cattle paths.

Naihati copper-plate inscription of Vallalasena (c. 1160-1178 CE). Naihati, 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 267-69; N.G. Majumdar, pp. 78. 79.

24. Precincts beautified by gardens (Mukherji and Maity). Land insterspersed with gardens (N.G. Majumdar). Also refers to the victory camp situated in Vikramapura.

Anulia copper-plate inscription of Laksmanasena (1178-1206 CE). Anulia, Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 309, 310; N.G. Majumdar, pp. 89, 90.

25. A city and it’s tops of skyscrapping houses. Also refers to the victory camp situated at Pahalgugrama.

Edilpur copper-plate inscription of Kesavasena (c. 1220-1223 CE). Edilpur, District Faridpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 344, 345; N.G. Majumdar, p. 129.

26. Dwelling sites (bati), outside house (varagrha), houses (grha), kitchens (pakaditegrha), cowshed (gograh).

Bhatera copper-plate inscription of Raja Govinda-Kesavadeva c. 1149 CE. Bhatera, District Maulvi Bazar, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Kamalakant Gupta, pp. 164 ff.

27. Residential Quarter (vastuh).

Bhatera copper-plate inscription of Raja Isanadeva (c. 1149 CE). Bhatera, District Maulvi Bazar, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Kamalakanta Gupta, pp. 186, 188, 191.


28. Vikramapura (from where the charter was issued)

Adavadi copper-plate inscription of Dasaratha Deva (c. 1283 CE). Adavadi, Vikrampura.

Sanskrit.

Reference: N.G. Majumdar, p. 180.

29. City of Pattikera.

The Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Ranavan kamalla Harikaladeva, 1141 Saka (1220 CE). Mainamati Hills, District Comilla.

Sanskrit.

Reference: V.R.S. Mongraph, No. 5, pp. 15, 16.

30. Public road (rajpatha) and cattle track.

Chittagong copper-plate inscription of Damodara (c. 1243 CE). Chittagong. Sanskrit.

Reference: N.G. Majumdar, pp. 161, 162; JASB, Vol. XLIII, 1874, Part- 1, pp. 318 ff.

Religious Buildings/Establishments:

1. Establishment of the temple of Lord Visnu (Govindasvami).

Baigram copper-plate inscription of the year 128 (448 CE). Baigram, District Bogra, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: R.K. Mukherji and Maily, pp. 50, 51, 52.

2. A Jaina Vihara and a temple of the Sun God.

The Jagadispur copper-plate inscription of the Gupta year 128 (447-48 CE). Jagadishpur, Puthia, Rajshahi.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Journal of the V.R.M, Vol. 1. No. 1, 1972, pp. 35-36.

3. Donation of land to a Jaina Vihara for religious works and for constructing a resting shed for the Jaina monks.

Paharpur copper-plate inscription of the Gupta year 155 (479 CE). Paharpur, District Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 54, 55, 56, 57.

4. Donation of land for one linga form and two temples (devakula), two storerooms (kostika) for Gods Siva and Visnu.

Damodarpur copper-plate inscription of the time of Budhagupta (476-495 CE). Damodarpur, District Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 62, 63, 64.

5. A Buddhist vihara called Asrama vihara dedicated to Avalokitesvara, the Royal monastery and the monastery of the monk Acarya Jitasena. Reference also to a temple of Pradyumnesvara.

Gunaighar copper-plate inscription of Vainyagupta (Gupta year 188, 507 CE). Gunaighar, District Comilla, Bangladesh.


Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 65, 70; Mainamati-Devaparvata, p. 208.

6. Land endowment to a temple of Visnu (Svetavarahasvamin devakula). Damodarpur copper-plate inscription of the time of ... Gupta (543 CE). Damodarpur, District Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 71-73.

7. Donation of land by nrpati Lokanatha for the establishment of a temple of Anantanarayan (Visnu).

Tripura copper-plate of Lokanatha (c. 560 CE). Greater Comilla district, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 40.

8. Murundanatha gifted land for the temple of God Anantanarayana (Visnu) in the forest region.

Kalapur copper-plate of Samanta Marundanatha (c. 690-710 CE). Kalapur, District Maulvi Bazar, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Kamalakanta Gupta, pp. 73, 77.

9. Maharaja Devakhadga made a land endowment to Acarya Sanghamitra the royal preceptor, who seems to have been the head of the four Buddhist monasteries large and small (vihara- viharika catustaya).

The first Ashrafpur copper-plate inscription of Devakhadga (13th regnal year, c. 665 CE). Ashrafpur, District Narsingdi, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 36-37; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 210.

10. Land transfer from the owners to Sanghamitra for his monasteries by Devakhadga. This transfer was confirmed by his son Prince Rajaraja.

The second Ashrafpur copper-plate inscription of Devakhadga (7th Regnal year,

c. 665 CE). Ashrafpur, District Narsingdi, Bangladesh. Sanskrit.

Reference: Abu Mohamed Habibullah Smarakgrantha, p. 37; Mainamati- Devaparvata, p. 211.

11. A well-framed Mohabhogasrama and eight viharas adorned with white coloured caityas. Also records land grants for viharas, stupas, repaired asramas (l. 26). The charter was issued from Devaparvata by Rajaputra Balabhatta.

Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Khadga ruler Balabhatta (late 7th century CE). Salvan Vihara, Mainamati, Bangladesh.


Reference: Hakim Habibur Rahman Commemotation Volume, p. 203, Mainamati- Devaparvata, pp. 213, 214; Bangladesh Archaeology, No. 1 (1979), pp. 141 ff.

12. Endowment of land by Sridharana Rata for religious activities, for the study and recitation of dharma and for providing robes, food lumps and other materials for the Sangha.

The Kailan copper-plate of Sridharana Rata (latter half of the 7th century CE). Kailan, District Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, p. 215.

13. A land gift for a temple.

The copper-plate inscription of Anandadeva (8th century). Salvan Vihara, Mainamati.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, pp. 218-219.

14. Bhavadeva endowed land for the establishment of a viharika in the name of Triratna (Buddha, Dharma and Sangha). This charter was issued from Devaparvata.

The inscription of Bhavavadeva (8th century CE) in nine lines are recorded on the reverse of the CP of Anandadeva.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, pp. 218, 219.

15. The land grant for a small Buddhist monastery (viharika) called Vendamati in the locality called Vendamati.

Ananda Vihara copper-plate inscription of Bhavadeva (8th century CE). Ananda Vihara, Mainamati, Comilla.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, pp. 219-220.

16. The Ratnatraya Shrine of the Vendamati Viharika.

Calcutta copper-plate inscription of Bhavadeva (c. 8th century CE). Ananda Vihara, Mainamati, Comilla.

Reference: Hakim Habibur Rahman Commemoration Volume, p. 213; JASB, Letters, Vol. XVII, No. 2.

17. The construction of a temple of Nana-narayana. Also refers to a temple of the Goddess of learning (Kadambari-devakulika).

Khalimpur copper-plate inscription of Dharmapala (32nd regnal year c. 802 CE). Khalimpur, District Malda, West Bengal, India

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 99, 100, 107, 108.

18. The constructions of thousands of Lord Siva’s temples by Narayanapaladeva. Bhagalpur copper-plate inscription of Narayanapaladeva (c. 866-920 CE). Bhagalpur, Bihar, India.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 175.


19. The construction of a Buddhist Mahavihara by chief army commander Srivagradeva in Kuddalkhataka Visaya, situated in Pundravardhanabhukti. Jagajjivanpur copper-plate inscription of Mahendrapala (9th century CE). Jagajjivanpur, District Malda, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Itihasa, edited by Mamtajur Rahman Tarafdar and Ajay Ray, 23rd year, 1-3 volumes, Dhaka 1396, pp. 3-4, 14.

20. Land donated to four Brahmanical monasteries (mathas). The land was situated at Candrapura Visaya of Srihattamandala, Pundravardhanabhukti.

Paschimbag copper-plate inscription of Sricandra (c. 929-75 CE). Paschimbag, District Maulvi Bazar, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Kamalakanta Gupta, p. 85.

21. The erection of a temple of Amarantha by a Brahmana named Prahasa of Varendra. The temple was white and of great height. He also built an almhouse and laid out a garden for the deity of Amarnatha. All these were built in the village of Syamba, Varendri, in the country of Pundra, where Prahasa lived.

Silimpur stone inscription of the time of Jayapaladeva (king of Kamarupa) (11th century CE). Silimpur, Bogra District, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: N.B. Sanyal, List of Inscriptions, pp. 13-14.

22. Construction of temples of Siva and temple of Visnu, and one two storeyed matha for Saiva Saints. Some of these temples were made of stone. Mention is made of stone pinnack (cuda) ornamented with pitcher of gold, constructed for Durga. Siyan stone inscription of Nayapaladeva (c. 11th century CE). Siyam, District Birbhum, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: N.R. Ray, Bangalir Itihasa, Adi Parva, pp. 434-435.

23. The existence of Saivite religious complex in the Bangarh region. There were stone temples of great height one of which had an attic. There were Brahmanical mathas and also large buildings which were of meru type.

According to D.C. Sarkar the meru type of buildings were large palaces which were ten storeyed. Each storey was 2.5 yards or more high. The width of this type of palace was 16 yards. There were four gateways on the four sides.

Bangarh Prasasti of Murtisiva of the time of Nayapaladeva (c. 11th century CE). Sivabati, Bangarh, West Dinajpur District, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: D.C. Sarkar, Silalekha-Tamrasasanadir Prasanga, pp. 87-68.

24. Construction of lofty temples by Vijayasena. This inscription also refers to the construction of a lofty edifice of Pradyamnesvara and to the golden jar placed on this temple. It also speaks of the excavation of a tank in front of the temple. Deopara inscription of Vajayasena (c. 1097-1160 CE). Deopara, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, pp. 255, 256; N.G. Majumdar, pp. 48, 49, 54, 55.


25. The temple of Lenghadeva.

Govindapur copper-plate inscription of Laksmanasena (c. 1178-1206 CE). Govindapur, 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 274-75; N.G. Majumdar, pp. 96, 97

26. A Buddhist monastery and a temple.

Tarpandighi copper-plate inscription of Laksmanasena (c. 1178-1206 CE). Tarapandighi, West Dinajpur, West Bengal, India.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 300; N.G.Majumdar, pp. 102, 104.

27. The lofty stone temple of god Kamsanisudana (a name of Krsna) built by Raja Govinda-Kesava with big stones. There was a wheel on the lofty crest. The inscription refers to a high temple built by Raja Isanadeva for Madhukaitabhari (Visnu) on the crest of which moved a flag. All these were situated in Srihattamandala.

Bhatera copper-plate No. 2 inscription of Raja Isanadeva (c. 1149 CE). Bhatera, District Maulvi Bazar, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Kamalakanta Gupta, pp. 185, 186, 190, 191.

28. Erection of temples and excavation of tanks.

Calcutta Sahitya Parishat copper-plate inscription of Visvarupasena (end of 12th century CE). Neighbourhood of Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 331; N.G. Majumdar, p. 147

29. Erection of temples and excavation of tanks.

Edilpur copper-plate inscription of Kesavasena (c. 1220-1223 CE). Edilpur, District Faridpur, Bangladesh

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mukherji and Maity, p. 331.

30. Gift of land to a small monastery dedicated to Goddess Durgottara.

The Mainamati copper-plate inscription of Ranavankamalla Harikeladeva (1220 CE). Mainamati hills, District Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, p. 226.

31. Gift of land lying in the Vataganga Visaya of Samatatamandala to the shrine of

Sri Ladahamadhavadeva.

The copper-plate inscription of Viradharadeva (c. mid-13th century CE). Charpatra Mura, Mainamati, Comilla, Bangladesh.

Sanskrit.

Reference: Mainamati-Devaparvata, pp. 230, 231.



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